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Transcript of Romanticism
1798 - 1832
Pride and Prejudice
Sir Walter Scott's
"A Poison Tree" by William Blake
"Composed Upon Westminster Bridge" by William Wordsworth
"The World is Too Much With Us" by William Wordsworth
"She Walks in Beauty" by George Gordon, Lord Byron
"Ozymandias" by Percy Shelley
Grimm's Fairy Tales
1. Uses chromatic harmony- notes not in the key signature. Breaking the previous rules of the Classical era (Mozart, Bach...) which was more structured. Less musical formulas.
2. Dramatic Dynamics
3. Programme Music- music that tells a story—operas & ballets.
4. A fascination with the past. Many, if not most of the ballets and operas written were set in the past.
5. More individuality.
6. Dominated by a lyrical melody.
7. Passion for nature (Blue Danube, Spring Waltz, Four Seasons)
8. Influenced by art and liturature.
9. Much variation compared to the previous eras
Originally published anonymously
Themes include individualism, change and transformation, and self-knowledge
Pride and Prejudice is set in the English countryside. Parents are concerned with their daughters' futures and send them out to marry into wealth.
The daughters are not entirely cooperative. Elizabeth, the protagonist, would rather marry for love.
Blake, William. A Poison Tree. Digital image. Nistha on the Web. N.p., 7 Feb. 2014. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.
"A Brief Guide to Romanticism." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.
Broken statue. Digital image. Paola's Blog. Edublogs, n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2014.
Constable, John. A Cornfield. 1817. Not on Display. Tate. Tate. Web.
Constable, John. Hampstead Heath with Bathers. 1821. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
Constable, John. Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds. 1825. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
Constable, John. Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows. 1831. Not on Display. Tate. Tate. Web.
Elements of Literature Sixth Course. N.p.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2003. My.HRW.com. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.
Galitz, Kathryn Calley. "Romanticism". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roma/hd_roma.htm (October 2004)
Gericault, Théodore. Alfred Dedreux as a Child. 1819. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
Gericault, Théodore. Evening: Landscape with an Aqueduct. 1818. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
Gericault, Théodore. Portait of a Woman Suffering from Obsessive Envy (The Hyena). 1822. Musée Des Beaux-Arts, Lyons. Smarthistory. Khan Academy. Web.
Gericault, Théodore. Portrait of a Kleptomaniac. 1822. Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent. Smarthistory. Khan Academy. Web.
Gontar, Cybele. "Neoclassicism". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/neoc_1/hd_neoc_1.htm (October 2003)
Gros, Antoine-Jean. Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken in Jaffa. 1804. Louvre, Paris. Smarthistory. Khan Academy. Web.
Guégan Stéphane, "De Chateaubriand à Girodet : Atala ou la belle morte", Chateaubriand et les Arts, Paris, Éditions de Fallois, 1999, pp. 137-152.
Heath, Shannon. "The Culture of Rebellion in the Romantic Era." The Culture of Rebellion in the Romantic Era. University of Tennessee, 2005. Web. 02 Mar. 2014. <http://web.utk.edu/~gerard/romanticpolitics/rebellion.html>.
Henry, Harley. "The Romantic Period." Nexus Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Mar. 2014. <http://www.nexuslearning.net/books/elements_of_lit_course6/The_%20Romantic_Period/Romantic%20Period%20Intro.htm>.
Kreis, Steven. "Lecture 16: The Romantic Era." Lecture 16: The Romantic Era. The History Guide, 2000. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture16a.html>.
LAVEISSIERE S., MICHEL R., CHENIQUE B., Géricault, catalogue d’exposition, Grand Palais 1991-1992, Editions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris, 1991.
Quote from Lord Byron's "She Walks in Beauty" Digital image. Book Lovers Never Go To Bed Alone. WordPress, 8 July 2011. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.
"Reform Act 1832." Princeton University. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014. <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Reform_Act_1832.html>.
"Romanticism." Romanticism. Brooklyn College, 12 Feb. 2009. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.
Smith, Nicole. "Elements of Romanticism in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley." Article Myriad. N.p., 6 Dec. 2011. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.
Turner, JMW. Snow Storm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps. 1812. Tate Britain, London. Tate. Tate. Web.
"Upon Westminster Bridge by William Wordsworth Poem with Text." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Sept. 2011. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.
Vernet, Horace. Stormy Coast Scene after a Shipwreck. 1825. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web.
Performance Halls/Orchestra/Opera Companies Established in the Romantic Era
“I have not the pleasure of understanding you.”
“There is a stubbornness about me that never can bear to be frightened at the will of others. My courage always rises at every attempt to intimidate me.”
1. The New York Philharmonic
2. Boston Symphony Orchestra
3. The Metropolitan Opera House
4. Carnegie Hall
5. London Symphony Orchestra
Tchaikovsky- Piano Concerto No.1
Debussy- Arabesque No. 1
Chopin- Spring Waltz
Korsakv- Flight of the Bumblebee
Blake explores the emotion of anger and outlines what could happen when anger is left to fester and grow. He eloquently uses the poison tree as a symbol of wrath and the poison apple it creates as a symbol of the consequences of anger.
The outdoors connect with a romantic fascination with nature as well as symbolize Elizabeth's freedom.
This poem is a typical example of the Romantic appreciation of beauty. Wordsworth chooses to depict London as a magnificent city, rather than the filthy poverty-stricken place it actually is during his time.
Early Romantic-Era Composers:
~Johann Strauss I
Middle Romantic-Era Composers:
~Johann Strauss II
The world is too much with us; late and soon,
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers:
Little we see in Nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!
This Sea that bares her bosom to the moon;
The winds that will be howling at all hours,
And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers;
For this, for everything, we are out of tune;
It moves us not.—Great God! I’d rather be
A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn;
So might I, standing on this pleasant lea,
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn;
Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea;
Or hear old Triton blow his wreathèd horn.
Late Romantic-Era Composers
Wordsworth laments the decline in the human race's appreciation for nature, noting that people have become too preoccupied with material goods. He refers to Greek gods, hinting at a return to older, simpler ways of thinking.
Regarded as the first historical novel written in English, it satirizes landowners in Ireland. The four generations of the Rackrent family manage to do a terrible job running the estate, but exploit their workers all the same.
Influenced by her father, Edgeworth advocated for women's education reform.
Castle Rackrent was heavily edited by her father.
They both believed that education was essential to individualism in the 18th century.
Edgeworth was sometimes criticized for didactic and moralistic undertones in her work.
Departure from reason & emphasis on emotions
Focus on nature
Poets of the Romantic Period explored passion and individualism, and also embraced the beauty of nature.
Important Poets of Romanticism
George Gordon, Lord of Byron
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Romantic poetry usually has some type of rhyme.
Whether it's a regular rhyme scheme of "AABBCCDD..." or a patterned scheme from a sonnet, rhyme is used to bring the entirety of the poem together.
Romantic poets effectively utilized vivid imagery to their advantage to express nature's beauty.
Figurative language, including similes and metaphors, were used to better depict the scene and to express the feelings the poet has toward the subject.
Darker in comparison to other romantic works
Imaginative and visionary
Uses character Victor Frankenstein as a highway for romantic ideals. He is a dreamer.
Striving against limitations and roles
takes place at the end of the 18th century.
Victor Frankenstein is a scientist who thinks he has discovered the secret to life.
The monster he creates murders his youngest brother, William.
Victor is blamed for another crime and falls ill, and then seeks revenge on the monster.
The monster weeps at Victor's death.
“The fallen angel becomes a malignant devil. Yet even that enemy of God and man had friends and associates in his desolation; I am alone.”
Early Romanticism and Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism pre-dated Romanticism and used Roman-Greco elements in art. Although Neoclassicism is often thought to oppose Romanticism, early Romanticism was shaped by Neoclassicism.
Baron Antoine-Jean Gros,
Napoleon Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken in Jaffa
Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson,
The Entombment of Atala
Girodet was known as a "rebel" of the Neoclassicism era. He often portrayed his subjects in a dream-like manner, and the foliage of the background provides an exotic setting.
Gros uses a more typical Neoclassicism style by combining traditional Christian figures with contemporary subjects. However, his works foreshadow the coming Romantic period.
“The prevailing taste of the public for anecdote has been censured and ridiculed by critics, who aspire to the character of superior wisdom: but if we consider it in a proper point of view, this taste is an incontestible proof of the good sense and profoundly philosophic temper of the present times. Of the numbers who study, or at least who read history, how few derive any advantage from their labors!”
Both of these artists trained under Jacques Louis David, an artist who embodied the Neoclassical style.
A Fascination with Nature
Romantic artists were fascinated with nature and its uncontrollable power, unpredictability, and extremes.
Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps
Evening: Landscape with an Aqueduct
Shipwrecks were a common theme, showing man's struggle with the immense powers of nature.
The Raft of Medusa
Stormy Coast Scene after a Shipwreck
The usage of simile, rhyme, and alliteration work together in this poem reflect the adoration of the speaker about the woman's beauty.
John Constable is a British painter known for his highly subjective, personal view of art that was characteristic for the Romantic period. His landscapes and cloud studies were combined with internal emotions.
Golding Constable's Kitchen Garden
Hampstead Heath with Bathers
Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop's Grounds
Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows
Constable painted common landscapes and unlike other artists who traveled the world for inspiration, he stayed in his hometown.
Portraits to Express Inner States
Portraits, instead of just painting people as they were, were used by painters to express a variety of psychological and emotional states.
Portrait of a Woman Suffering from Obsessive Envy (The Hyena)
Portrait of a Kleptomaniac
Alfred Dedreux as a Child
Gericault used portraits to portray the extremes of insanity as well as the darker sides of childhood.
I met a Traveler from an antique land,
Who said, "Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read,
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed:
And on the pedestal these words appear:
"My name is OZYMANDIAS, King of Kings."
Look on my works ye Mighty, and despair!
No thing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that Colossal Wreck, boundless and bare,
The lone and level sands stretch far away.
The irony of the Traveler's tale alludes to Shelley's feelings toward the Industrial Revolution. When people disappear, only the material goods will remain to show what progress mankind has made. What use is such a grand, yet crippled, statue that is supposedly the symbol of human success?
The Brothers Grimm made popular fairy tales known today such as Cinderella, Snow White, and Rapunzel. Walt Disney adapted several of these stories for films.
The first volume was published in 1812 and had 86 stories in it.
Early editions were criticized because they were not regarded as suitable for children. They were too dark and intellectual, unlike more modern adaptations.
Folklore contributed to Germany's concept of romantic nationalism in its time.
Romantic ideals were especially important to Germany in philosophy and society, as well as literature.
The Brothers Grimm especially highlighted a straying beyond conventional wisdom to fantasy.
Historical Events of the Romantic Period
The American Revolution
The American revolution resulted in the loss of the 13 colonies in the new world for England. This loss had major economic consequences, but it also resulted in a loss of pride and prestige for England because it was evident that the mother country no longer had the power to hold onto its assets.
The start of the American revolution, which was accompanied by feelings of contempt towards societal ruling classes, was also indicative of the much more violent and proximal French revolution that would begin in 1789.
The French Revolution
The Industrialization of England
Like the American revolution, the French revolution also began because of distaste for the policies and practices of the ruling class. This anger reached a boiling point resulting in the storming of Bastille (a prison located in Paris).
The storming of Bastille was only the first of many violent tactics used by French revolutionaries including a massacre of members of the clergy and their relations as well as the execution of King Louis XVI.
The French revolution resulted in control of the government by Napoleon Bonaparte, who was eventually revealed to be a power-hungry dictator himself.
Napoleon ended up being one tyrant that replaced another when he began attempting to conquer surrounding lands in Europe.
The French revolution and Napoleon's tyrannical behavior somewhat diminished the support for democratic and radical ideas that the poets of this era originally supported.
Poets such as Wordsworth and Coleridge believed in true democratic principles.
Taking place in 1194
significantly increased interest in romantic and historic literature.
Wilfred is disowned by his father because of his loyalty to the king, and his love for Rowena. He wins Rowena in a tournament with the help of a knight who later reveals himself as King Richard. Ivanhoe also sets free a woman put on trial for witchcraft.
Ivanhoe's romantic qualities include the disruption of order in favor of a free, idealistic way of life. There is a setting of chivalry,
Being one of the first nations to experience the effects of massive industrialization, England was not prepared to deal with the negative side effects.
Many people migrated to cities in search of work because positions in factories were the last positions available.
Overpopulation then led to horrible working and living conditions.
The Romantic poets were unhappy with these changes and aimed to bring about social reform through literature.
1804 - 1815
Ivanhoe's romantic qualities include the disruption of order in favor of a free, idealistic way of life. There is a setting of chivalry and heroic ideals in the midst of a relatively modern society.
1760 - 1850
The Reform Act of 1832 was proposed by the Whigs in Parliament.
Members of Parliament that had been in control for decades were very upset with the act because it took away a great deal of power from long-standing members of Parliament.
The act was eventually passed due to societal pressure, however, and is considered by some to signal the end of the Romantic period.
The act made changes to government that the Romantic poets and other citizens of England had been calling for.