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Miami, Migration, & Haiti F13
Transcript of Miami, Migration, & Haiti F13
• the first human trans-continental migration -- 2 million years ago
Historically, migration meant severing ties in home country
Now, travel, communication is easy
Types of Migration
- Internal-- within national boundaries (rural to urban)
- International-- across national boundaries
- Transnational-- regular movement back and forth between two nations (new 'transnational' cultural identity)
Why do people migrate?
Long history of migration
16th - 19th Century
-British, Dutch, Germans etc
---African slaves & European Indentured Servants
--Increase in Irish & Chinese migration
Chinese Exclusion Act
Early 20th Century--
---Concern about migration-- quota system and ranking 'success' based on "race"
--intended to exclude Italians, Jewish and others characterised as "undesirable"
1965-- reformed immigration laws
--repealed quota systems
--emphasis on professional
--emphasis on family reunification
Theories about emerged during the context of early 20th century migration
--concerned about the retention of 'ethnicity' versus assimilation
Park & Burgess (sociologists, circa 1925)
--assimilation process inevitable
--inter-group interaction & sharing experience would replace ethnic identities
--create a "melting-pot" of individuals with "American temperament"
assimilation-- process whereby individuals or groups absorbed into another (dominant) group
Gordon: two stages
--acculturation, then assimilation
--acculturation: process of acquiring "second culture", b/c of sustained and imbalanced contact
but...find that contact between individuals and groups also reinforces categories of ethnicity
--symbolic markers used to enhance distinction, particularly in context of social inequality & discrimination
--"Rather than reflecting immigrant's beliefs or actions, the quality and form of interaction depends on the relative power of groups within a particular context"
--migration to picks up in 1960s
--Latino-Americans & migrants majority with significant political & economic power
--Haitian & other Caribbean Americans & migrants marginalized economically & politically
--20% white, but hold 75% of judicial positions, 51% of political positions
--first wave: 1950s & 1960s
What are your reactions towards the film? Are 2Pac & Bily pro-Aristide or anti-Aristide?
--reinforces our ideology of Haitians as dangerous, violent, "dirty" without contextualizing situation
--ideology - ideas that maintain the status quo
Island of Hispaniola ("little Spain")
--Arawak (Taino) displaced other populations
--Who named island "little Spain"?
--use of Arawak to mine gold
--very few left by early 16th century
Spanish settlers-- started to cultivate sugar cane
--needed labor, so imported African slaves
Spanish withdrew partially, so French pirates invaded.
---eventually Spain signed treaty giving France 1/3 (Saint-Dominque).
---Spain kept Santo-Domingo
large sugar plantations
--controlled African population with brutality
French Revolution in 1790-- inspired revolts
--Affranchi led b/c wanted equal rights with white land owners
--started slave rebellion --led by Toussaint Louverture
French abolished slavery to gain support against Spanish on island
--France took over Santo-Domingo in 1795.
Toussaint declared Saint-Dominque independent in 1801
--French captured & imprisoned him.
1804-- Dessalines proclaimed independence (Haiti)
Boyer - 1818 - 1843
--united North & South
--fostered mulatto elite
International community wouldn't recognize Haiti as independent nation
--French threatened take-over
--until Boyer agreed to pay the French 150 million francs in reparations (=21 Billion).
US occupied 1915- 1934
1957- 1971- Papa Doc (Duvalier) elected president of Haiti.
---Established dictatorship- considered most repressive regime, combining political oppression and people’s fear of Voodoo.
---Appealed to black middle class for legitimacy- ended elite (mulatto) rule in Haiti
---Members of former regime and upper class started to migrate to US
---Papa Doc accused of pocketing aid money, so Kennedy suspended aid to the country in 1961
1971-1986 (2nd wave migration)
---Papa Doc’s son, Duvalier Jr. (Baby Doc),
---Under control, economic and political atmosphere continued to decline
---US restored aid program in 1971, because Baby Doc seemed to stop human rights violations
---But, gained wealth from fraudlant economic activities- taking proceeds from government economic ventures
---Left country vulnerable to endemic poverty and economic crisis
---Regime condemned by citizens and international community
---Baby Doc forced into exile --taking millions
--1990- Aristide (Catholic Priest) won presidential election with 67% of votes
--Presidency threatened elite b/c of populist ideology
--Ousted by coup in 1991 (by wealthy mulattos, Cedras)
- hundreds killed in coup and Aristide went into exile
--Ensuing military control to 1994 – 3,000 to 5,000 Haitians killed
Many Haitians started to migrate to US by boat (3rd wave migration)- most denied entry if caught and sent back
---US started economic sanctions (embargo) on Haiti
1994- US troops entered Haiti to restore Aristide
--1995-- Succeeded by Preval
--2000-- Aristide won election again
--wanted higher wages, higher taxation of rich etc
--requested reparations from France
--Mulatto elite protested (in Haiti & in US)
--overthrown by Metayer (Cannibal Army, to avenge death of brother), Guy Phillipe, Chamblain
--forced to resign by US??