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Big Bang Theory
Transcript of Big Bang Theory
Believed that the four basic forces of nature: weak force, strong force, gravity, and electromagnetic force, combine to make one "super" force
Size of an atom
Time: 10^-10 seconds
Temperature cools below 10^15 K
Last of the fundamental forces, electromagnetic and weak forces, separate and become distinct
Time: 50,000 years
Matter begins to dominate in the form of plasma
Photons can not travel far because they continuously bounce off one one another Time: 10^-35 seconds
Strong force becomes distinct causing inflation, greatly expanding the universe
Later evolves to become seeds for galaxies The point of singularity
Infinitely small, hot, and dense
There was no space or time before The Big Bang
No sound present, only light and energy exist History
- In 1929, the idea of the universe expanding was first theorized by a Belgian cosmologist and Catholic priest named George Lemaitre.
- He was the first to hypothesize that the universe was derived from cosmic singularity: the universe was infinitely small and all energy and matter were condensed into a single point.
- In 1950, the term "The Big Bang" was coined by an English Theorist named Fred Hoyle during a BBC radio broadcast. Evidence Supporting The Big Bang Theory 1) Hubble's Law, created by Edwin Hubble in 1929, states that all galaxies are moving away at velocities equally proportional to their distance. This theory supports the expansion, as well as the compact, of the universe.
2) Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation as remnants of heat leftover from The Big Bang at 2.725 degrees Kelvin discovered in 1965 by Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Labs Horn Antenna.
3) Abundance of "light elements" such as Hydrogen and Helium found in the universe. The Age of the Universe The theory originally states the universe originated approximately 13.77 billion years ago.
Recently, U.S. scientists working in the European Space Agency's Planck mission to plot the Cosmic Microwave Background discovered the universe is expanding slower than before.
The scientists concluded that the universe is actually 13.82 billion years old; 100 million years older.
The Beginning The theory states that the universe sprang into existence as singularity.
Singularities are classified as zones that defy our current understandings of physics and are thought to exist in the core of black holes.
Therefore, the universe would have begun as infinitely small, infinitely hot, and have infinitely density.
Immediately after the initial appearance, the universe inflated, expanded, and cooled; starting from a very hot and very small point, to the current size and temperature of the universe today.
When the four forces became distinct, particles began to form
Matter and anti-matter were formed in equal
Particles were constantly created and destroyed
More matter particles were created than anti-particles Time: 3 minutes
Universe cooled enough that ended nuclear fusion, forming nuclei of simple elements
Baryonic matter now consisted of 75% hydrogen, 25% helium, less than 1% of mostly lithium Recombination Time: 380,000 years
Hydrogen and helium began to capture free electrons and become stable
Gas in the universe becomes transparent, allowing photons to travel across the universe Era of Stars and Galaxies Time: 200 million years
First stars and galaxies are formed
Explosions of stars caused the birth of heavier elements
Age of Galaxies Time: 1 billion years
Galaxies form around dark matter
Stars are forming rapidly
Galaxies group together Suns and Planets Time: 5 billion years
Sun and planets begin to form
Earth and Moon forms
Life on earth appears for the first time Today Time: 13.82 billion years
The universe is currently continuing to expand all the time Time The Large Hydron Collider Two-ring superconducting proton-proton collider
Used to study rare events such as Higgs particle production
Located at CERN, on the Swiss-French border outside Geneva
The Grid - global network of computers and software created and used by scientists and engineers internationally
The structure is 100 meters underground, approximately 27 km in circumference, and weighs more than 38,000 tons
Diameter of tunnel in regular areas is only 3.8 meters, with the detectors reaching 25 meters in diameter
Two rings are incorporated into a single magnetic structure
Layout ofthe LHC Consists of 8 arcs and straight sections
4 chambers contain detectors, 4 used for machine utilities, radio frequencies, and aborting of beams
Injection systems for the two rings are located at ALICE and LHCb
Small angle scattering found at ATLAS and CMS
The beams cross from one ring to others at 4 locations