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Big Bang Theory

The beginning of the universe
by

Alison Christian

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Big Bang Theory

The Beginning of the Universe The Big Bang Theory The Planck Era Electroweak Era Particle Era Nucleosynthesis Photons and Radiation GUT Era The Big Bang Time: 10^-43 seconds

Believed that the four basic forces of nature: weak force, strong force, gravity, and electromagnetic force, combine to make one "super" force

Size of an atom

Time: 10^-10 seconds

Temperature cools below 10^15 K

Last of the fundamental forces, electromagnetic and weak forces, separate and become distinct

Time: 50,000 years

Matter begins to dominate in the form of plasma

Photons can not travel far because they continuously bounce off one one another Time: 10^-35 seconds

Quarks appear

Strong force becomes distinct causing inflation, greatly expanding the universe

Later evolves to become seeds for galaxies The point of singularity

Infinitely small, hot, and dense

There was no space or time before The Big Bang

No sound present, only light and energy exist History
- In 1929, the idea of the universe expanding was first theorized by a Belgian cosmologist and Catholic priest named George Lemaitre.

- He was the first to hypothesize that the universe was derived from cosmic singularity: the universe was infinitely small and all energy and matter were condensed into a single point.

- In 1950, the term "The Big Bang" was coined by an English Theorist named Fred Hoyle during a BBC radio broadcast. Evidence Supporting The Big Bang Theory 1) Hubble's Law, created by Edwin Hubble in 1929, states that all galaxies are moving away at velocities equally proportional to their distance. This theory supports the expansion, as well as the compact, of the universe.

2) Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation as remnants of heat leftover from The Big Bang at 2.725 degrees Kelvin discovered in 1965 by Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Labs Horn Antenna.

3) Abundance of "light elements" such as Hydrogen and Helium found in the universe. The Age of the Universe The theory originally states the universe originated approximately 13.77 billion years ago.

Recently, U.S. scientists working in the European Space Agency's Planck mission to plot the Cosmic Microwave Background discovered the universe is expanding slower than before.

The scientists concluded that the universe is actually 13.82 billion years old; 100 million years older.

The Beginning The theory states that the universe sprang into existence as singularity.

Singularities are classified as zones that defy our current understandings of physics and are thought to exist in the core of black holes.

Therefore, the universe would have begun as infinitely small, infinitely hot, and have infinitely density.

Immediately after the initial appearance, the universe inflated, expanded, and cooled; starting from a very hot and very small point, to the current size and temperature of the universe today.
When the four forces became distinct, particles began to form

Matter and anti-matter were formed in equal

Particles were constantly created and destroyed

More matter particles were created than anti-particles Time: 3 minutes

Universe cooled enough that ended nuclear fusion, forming nuclei of simple elements

Baryonic matter now consisted of 75% hydrogen, 25% helium, less than 1% of mostly lithium Recombination Time: 380,000 years

Hydrogen and helium began to capture free electrons and become stable

Gas in the universe becomes transparent, allowing photons to travel across the universe Era of Stars and Galaxies Time: 200 million years

First stars and galaxies are formed

Explosions of stars caused the birth of heavier elements
Age of Galaxies Time: 1 billion years

Galaxies form around dark matter

Stars are forming rapidly

Galaxies group together Suns and Planets Time: 5 billion years

Sun and planets begin to form

Earth and Moon forms

Life on earth appears for the first time Today Time: 13.82 billion years

The universe is currently continuing to expand all the time Time The Large Hydron Collider Two-ring superconducting proton-proton collider

Used to study rare events such as Higgs particle production

Located at CERN, on the Swiss-French border outside Geneva

The Grid - global network of computers and software created and used by scientists and engineers internationally

The structure is 100 meters underground, approximately 27 km in circumference, and weighs more than 38,000 tons

Diameter of tunnel in regular areas is only 3.8 meters, with the detectors reaching 25 meters in diameter

Two rings are incorporated into a single magnetic structure
Layout ofthe LHC Consists of 8 arcs and straight sections

4 chambers contain detectors, 4 used for machine utilities, radio frequencies, and aborting of beams

Injection systems for the two rings are located at ALICE and LHCb

Small angle scattering found at ATLAS and CMS

The beams cross from one ring to others at 4 locations
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