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Transcript of WWI
July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918
Heir to Austria-Hungarian throne
Serbian-nationalist terrorist group
Seven young men were directed to kill the Archduke
was the last of the seven,
and the only one to succeed
Account of Count Franz von Harrach (the Archduke's bodyguard)
As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right check. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him, "For God's sake! What has happened to you?"
At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees.
I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say, "Sophie, Sophie, don't die. Stay alive for the children!"
At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly, "It is nothing!"
His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, "It's nothing!"
Then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss of blood. This ceased on arrival at the governor's residence.
The two unconscious bodies were carried into the building where their death was soon established.
Austria-Hungary placed blame on the Serbian government
In order to give a formal character to this undertaking the Royal Serbian Government shall publish on the front page of their "Official Journal" of the 13-26 of July the following declaration:
"The Royal Government of Serbia condemn the propaganda directed against Austria-Hungary - i.e., the general tendency of which the final aim is to detach from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy territories belonging to it, and they sincerely deplore the fatal consequences of these criminal proceedings."
[Serbia] cannot be held responsible for manifestations of a private character, such as articles in the press and the peaceable work of societies ... [The Serbian government] have been pained and surprised at the statements, according to which members of the Kingdom of Serbia are supposed to have participated in the preparations of the crime...
Russia (Tsar Nicholas II) and Germany (Emperor Wilhelm II) were working to deescalate the troubles
Correspondence from June 16, 1914 to August 2, 1914
after the leaders nicknames
Thanks for your telegram. I yesterday pointed out to your government the way by which alone war may be avoided.
Although I requested an answer for noon today, no telegram from my ambassador conveying an answer from your Government has reached me as yet. I therefore have been obliged to mobilize my army.
Immediate affirmative clear and unmistakable answer from your government is the only way to avoid endless misery. Until I have received this answer alas, I am unable to discuss the subject of your telegram. As a matter of fact I must request you to immediately order your troops on no account to commit the slightest act of trespassing over our frontiers.
August 1, 1914 (Berlin)
Kaiser Wilhelm to Tsar Nicholas
Austria-Hungary declared war on July 28, 1914
Vienna - 28 July 1914
The Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms.
Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia.
Count Berchtold (Austria-Hungary Foreign Minister)
Germany had promised to back Austria-Hungary in the event of a war against Serbia
France, Russia and Great Britain formed an informal military alliance in response to Germany’s growing military power (Triple Entente)
(Willy-Nicky Telegrams) Russia knew Germany would declare war on Serbia if Austria-Hungary did
Italy was allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary (Triple Alliance)
Italy had also promised allegiance to France and the Triple Entente
They had been waiting for a reason to declare war on Serbia and expand their borders
In early July, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia
By the time war broke out, the alliances had changed:
Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia
Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Austria-Hungary signed peace treaty with Allies
Germany entered Paris to begin peace negotiations
November 11, 1918 (11:11 am)
Self-determination: the right of people to decide their own political status
armistice: end of fighting
January 1919 - Paris Peace Conference
Central Powers not invited
Big Four - Great Britain, France, US, Italy
wanted peace and diplomacy
wanted to put war behind them
Germany had attacked France twice in the past 50 years
France wanted reparations and land
No interest in diplomacy
"Mr. Wilson bores me with his fourteen points... Why, God Almighty has only ten!" - French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau
Treaty of Versailles - signed under threat June 28, 1919
Germany had to disarm
Germany had to pay reparations
Germany had to accept responsibility for starting the war
League of Nations established
Central Powers surrendered colonies to Allies
Some ethnic groups received the right of self-determination
Nine new nations created (including Poland)
14 million dead, 7 million permanently disabled
Led to overthrow of monarchies
Contributed to rise of Communism
Contributed to revolts against colonialism
Destroyed European economies - US became leading economic power
Most major issues were left unresolved and European powers remained angry, broke, and hostile
The Great War
The War to End All Wars
League of Nations: an organization of nations that would work together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars
Paris Peace Conference
You will begin the period in your assigned country, making decisions about what specifically your country wants. You will follow the bullet pointed guidelines in your information packet, as well as any information you found in independent research. Each delegate must write the country’s demands to bring to the Paris Peace Conference.
Delegates will then move into their Paris Peace Conference groups, which will include one delegate from each country (see to the left for your conference group). Your goal in the Paris Peace Conference is to get all of your country’s demands met and help broker a treaty between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers that will do the greatest good for the world.
At the Conference, your group must come up with solutions to
Preventing Germany military aggression
War guilt and reparations (getting Germany to admit guilt and pay for war damages)
Self-determination of European nations (people within the borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire need to be able to establish their own governments and rule themselves)
The creation of a League of Nations
Any other desired restrictions on Germany
Conference delegates must then complete a Treaty of Peace worksheet that will be turned in prior to returning to your home country. As a delegate, your job is to keep track of what your conference decides so you can bring it back to your group to see how well you did.
The last step of this activity is to return to your country and compare your results with the other delegates from your country. As a country, you will decide, by a majority vote, who fared best at the Paris Peace Conference.