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Louis Pasteur

French chemist and microbiologist

Anna Shvedkina

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Louis Pasteur

French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur Cynthia Lou
Sabrina Nguyen
Julie Ya Life of Louis Pasteur Adulthood Wife Academic Achievements o Bachelier ès letters (B.A.), 1840, Royal College of Besançon
o Bachelier ès sciences (B.Sc.), 1842, Royal College of Besançon
o Licenciés ès sciences (M.Sc.), 1845, École Normale Supérieure
o Docteur ès sciences (Ph.D.), 1845, École Normale Supérieure Phases of Pasteur's
Life 1847 – 1862, Pasteur as a physicist & chemist
1862 – 1877, Pasteur as a biologist
1877 – 1887, Pasteur as a microbiologist Self-named Discovery Chirality o Non-superimposable mirror image
o Developed new ways to name his newly discovered science of crystal and molecular chirality
Received acknowledgment for this contribution, and earned a membership in the Académie française
o Many psychiatric drugs, including antidepressants, are chiral
natural products are normally chiral
Thalidomide was a chiral drug prescribed to pregnant women back in late 1950s - early 1960s for morning sickness. The incorrect "handedness" was produced with disastrous consequences to the fetus. Works Cited BBC - History - Louis Pasteur. (n.d.). BBC - Homepage. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/pasteur_louis.shtml

Biography.com. Louis Pasteur Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com. (2013, January 1). Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com . Retrieved Feb 09, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/louis-pasteur-9434402/

Borghi, L. (2006, August 20). Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Wikimedia. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/71/Institut_Pasteur%2C_Paris_1.jpg

Davies, Neal, M. & Teng, Xiao Wei. (2003). Importance Of Chirality in Drug Therapy and Pharmacy Practice: Implications for Psychiatry. In Advances in Pharmacy. (Vol. 1, pp. 242-252). n.p. Wolters Kluwer Health. Inc. <http://www.kimyasanal.org/yukle/cgq04lrtwb_1.pdf>

Describing Chirality: Home page. (n.d.). Describing Chirality. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://chirality.ouvaton.org/homepage.htm
Dr. Hani. (2010, Feb 3). Discovery of Pasteurization. Retrieved from: http://explorable.com/discovery-of-pasteurization

Encyclopædia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1985. Print.

Kats, D. (2010, September 19). Early Life. Louis Pasteur Biography. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from https://sites.google.com/site/louispasteurbio871/home/early-life-1/Jean-Joseph-Pasteur-1791-1865-1842.jpg

Louis Pasteur. (n.d.). History Learning Site. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/louis_pasteur.htm

Louis Pasteur, language, and molecular chirality. ... [Chirality. 2011] - PubMed - NCBI. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20589938

Martz, J. (2007, August 1). University of Strasbourg - Le Palais Universitaire. Wikimedia. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a4/Absolute_Palais_Universitaire_01.JPG/220px-Absolute_Palais_Universitaire_01.JPG

Medical Discoveries. (n.d). Medical Discoveries - Pasteurization. Retrieved from http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/images/mdis_0000_0003_0_img0116.jpg

NNDB. (2012, January 1). Louis Pasteur. NNDB: Tracking the entire world. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from http://www.nndb.com/people/580/000072364/

Pasteur's Test of Spontaneous Generation [Digital Image]. (N.d). Retrieved Feb 19, 2013, from:http://amoebamike.wordpress.com/2009/10/06/spontaneous-generation-a-brief-history-of-disproving-it/

thalidomide. (n.d.). Yale Department of Chemistry. Retrieved February 12, 2013, from http://www.chem.yale.edu/~chem125/125/thalidomide/thalidomide.html

Troy, J. (n.d.) frogstorm.com. Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://frogstorm.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Louis-Pasteur-gives-Joseph-Meister-the-rabies-vaccine.jpg

[Untitled digital image of equation for alcohalic fermentation]. Retrieved Feb 19, 2013, from: http://mv.picse.net/fermentation/brewing/process-at-the-brewery/ Early Life o Jeanne Etiennette Roqui BIRTH o December 27, 1822
o Dole, Jura, Franche-Comté, eastern France
o Raised 30 km away at Arbois, Jura, Franche-Comté, France DEATH o September 28, 1895
o Marnes la Coquette, Île-de-France (dept.), Hauts-de-Seine (reg.), France
o Stroke complications
o Buried at the Institut Pasteur, Paris, France RELIGION o Roman Catholic FATHER MOTHER SIBLINGS SCHOOL o Jean-Joseph Pasteur
o Tanner, like generations of Pasteur men
o Sergeant major, Legion of Honour, Napoleonic Wars o Average student
o Loved to draw o Jean Denis, older brother
o Jeanne Antoine, older sister
o Joséphine, younger sister
o Jeanne Emilie, younger sister Institut Pasteur Jean-Joseph Pasteur Children o Marie Anne Laurent
o Daughter of the University of Strasbourg’s rector
o Married on May 29, 1849 at the University of Strasbourg o Jeanne
o Jean Baptiste
o Cécile
o Marie Louise
o Camile
o Only Jean Baptiste and Marie Louise survived until adulthood University of Strasbourg PASTEURIZATION o Process of heating up, then immediately cooling the food (usually a beverage)
kills microbes
o Developed when it was discovered that micro-organisms were guilty of spoiling the drinks WITHOUT IT .. o Epidemic outburst
food-borne illnesses
caused by contaminated nourishment Process of Pasteurization Milk being pasteurized Diseases o Had the idea that bacteria was also responsible for causing diseases in human beings
o Researched after developing pasteurization
o Was able to prove that the origin of bacteria is from the environment GERM THEORY OF DISEASE VACCINATION o Created the first vaccination for humans
o Created vaccines for chicken cholera, rabies, and anthrax
o Followed English doctor's, Edward Jenner, method to create vaccinations
o Saved lives for humans suffering A Successful Vaccine Shot Pasteur observing his rabies vaccine being injected inside Joseph Meister, who has been bitten by a rabid dog. Scientific Achievements o one of the greatest benefactors of humanity
o many medical & scientific accomplishments
o cure for
- rabies - anthrax
- chicken cholera - silkworm diseases
o contributed to development of first vaccines and blueprints for fermentation and brewing 1847-1862 (as a physicist
& chemist) o Crystallography (examines the arrangement of atoms in solids): brought the principles of crystallography, chemistry and optics together
- Stereo chemistry (spatial chemistry) was
originated from his research

o Alcoholic Fermentation: laid foundation for all microbiological techniques through research on lactic acid & alcoholic fermentation 1862 – 1877 (as a biologist) o Spontaneous Generation
-debunked the widely accepted myth, setting the foundation for modern biology and biochemistry

o Silk Worm Diseases
-invented cellular egg production to terminate the disease
-made the stage for prophylaxis rules (preventive medicine) and gave a solution for hereditary & contagious problems 1862 – 1877 (as a biologist) o Pasteurization (Wine & Beer Diseases)
-described scientific base for fermentation, wine-making and brewing of beer
-able to demonstrate that organisms such as bacteria were responsible for souring wine & beer (later proving milk was the same)
-bacteria could be removed by boiling at 55 degrees Celsius and cooling the liquid 1877 – 1887 (as a microbiologist) o Germ Theory of Disease
-explained the causes of anthrax, cholera, TB and smallpox and their prevention through vaccination
-developed immunology branch of science

o Rabies
-development of vaccine against rabies
-built an invisible micro-organism to calm the virus into the marrow and succeeded Louis Pasteur WITHOUT HIM .. o Humanity would have suffered a longer time, drinking spoiled milk, beer, and wine
o It would remain unknown that heating drinks would help kill microbes in nourishments
o Cause of disease would remain unknown
o Higher mortality rates in that time period, both animals and humans
including Joseph Meister, Pasteur's first human patient
o Knowledge of chirality would be less developed/known to the world, not to mention its nomenclature
o No knowledge of chirality = possible misuse of drugs
Thalidomide caused birth defects due to improper growth of fetus Alcoholic Fermentation -Louis Pasteur studied the fermentation of sugar to alcohol and he was the first to connect yeast with fermentation -produces products like beer and bread Spontaneous Generation
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