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Civil Rights Movement

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Rissy Salzillo

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement 13th Amendment The 13th amendment was passed by congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6,1865. It outlawed slavery and involuntary service, except as a punishment for crime. This was the first of three reconstruction acts. It won by a vote of 38 to 6. 14th Amendment The 14th amendment was passed on July 9, 1868 as one of the reconstruction acts. This gave African Americans citizenship. It prohibits any government depriving anyone of freedom and liberty. This was also one of the reconstruction acts. 15th Amendment The 15th amendment gave African American men the right to vote. This passed on February 3, 1870 denying no man of voting despite of color, race, etc. This was the third reconstruction act. The 15th amendment allowed no discrimination of any type of voter. Plessy v.s Ferguson This was a Supreme Court case held in the year of 1896 regarding racial segregation in public facilities. This then resulted in the doctrine of "separate but equal". After arresting several black citizens it was brought to court. They wanted the right to sit in white public places. Nation of Islam (NOI)
is founded This was a religious movement founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1930. It was founded by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad. The NOI's goals were to improve the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of the African Americans living in the USA. African Americans got more support by the government to help them live more comfortably. CORE is founded Core stands for "Congress of Racial Equality". It was a US civil rights organization that played an important role for all the African Americans in the CRM. CORE believes that all people were created equal. Malcolm Little arrested and prison time At the age of 20 years old, Malcolm was arrested for breaking and entering in 1946. While in jail he joined the black muslims group. Also in jail he spent a lot of time reading. He read the dictionary, and the Koran. Jakie Roberson Integrates Major League Baseball He was the first African American baseball player to make it to the Major leagues. The Brooklyn Dodgers started him off on first base, April 15 1957. Roberson played in 6 World Series and also had some contribution in the Dodgers 1955 World Championship. Jackie is a MLB legend. Executive Order 9981 This was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the army. Later this led to the end of segregation in the military services. Montgomery Bus Boycott This was a political and social protest campaign regarding segregated transportation. In 1955 of December, Rosa Parks (an African American woman) refused to give her seat on a bus up to a white person. Many other important figures took place in the bus boycott also. Rosa was then arrested. Brown v. Board of Education This was a landmark US Supreme Court case where the Court declared state laws that separated public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. This was argued from 1952-1953, and in 1954 their decision was decided. It segregated whites and blacks and enraged racism. Ruby Bridges Ruby was born in the September of 1954 (she is 58 now). She is well known as the first African American child to attend an all-white elementary school in the south called the William Frantz Elementary School. She was admired by African Americans. Murder of Emmit Till In an interview for Look magazine in 1956, 2 men Bryant and Milam said their intention was to beat (African American) Till (for flirting with white women and standing up for himself) and bring him to a river to scare him off. They ended up killing Till, and disposed of his body in the river. This only enraged many blacks and continued racism. SCLC is founded The SCLC stands for Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was founded January 10, 1957. Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of this organization. The SCLC wanted the power and independence of black churches to support its activities. Civil Rights act of 1957 The civil rights act took place on September 9, 1957. It took place during Eisenhower's presidency. This act was to give every African American the right to vote. This protected there voting rights. After only about 20% of African Americans were registered to vote. Little Rock Nine The Little Rock Nine were Nine African American students that just enrolled into Little Rock Central High School. This happened on September 23, 1957. They were the first students into a integrated white school. They had to be escorted in by the police. Southern Manifesto This was a document which allowing integrated public places. It was signed by 12 senators and 82 representatives. Southern Manifesto took place from February to March of 1958. Greensboro Sit In's The Greensboro sit ins took place on February 1, 1960. They were a series of non-vioent protests. African Americans would walk into stores and when they were asked to leave, they would stay until close. SNCC is founded The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, otherwise known as the SNCC, was founded in the April of 1960. This directly followed the Greensboro sit ins. This committee organized non-violent protests. Freedom Rides The Freedom Rides took place in early 1961. This was a group of African Americans who rode the bus in the white sections. They also went into the white sections of stores, restaurants, shops, etc. James Meredith & Intergration of Ole Miss In the year of 1962, Meredith was the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi. He was considered a hero for this. He later joined the Air Force. "Bull" Connor and Birmingham, Alabama protests This was a movement created by the SCLC to let everyone know about the unequal treatment that African Americans were going through in Birmingham, Alabama. This campaign took place during the spring of 1963. This act eventually coerced the government into changing the city's discrimination laws. Letter from Birmingham Jail The Letter from Birmingham City Jail can also be identified as The Negro Is Your Brother. This was an open letter that was written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr.; the American civil right leader. Murder of Medgar Evers March on Washington for jobs and freedom This took place on August 28, 1963. About 250,000 people marched on Washington Street for jobs and freedom. They marched in protest for there injustice and inequalities. This is when Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous " I have a dream speech". He was the leader of the civil rights act. Evers was an African American civil rights participant from Mississippi. He was involved in several attempts to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi. He was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith, who was a member of the White Citizens' Council. The death of Evers definitely inspired other members of the civil rights to form more protests. 24th Amendment Bombing of 16th Street Baptist church The bombing of the church occurred in Birmingham, Alabama on September 15, 1963. This was done purposefully as an act of racially motivated terrorism. The explosion at the African American church, ended up killing four little girls. This day also marked a huge turning point in the US Civil Rights Movement. Freedom Summer This got proposed to congress in August 27, 1962. It made was a document that tried to eliminate the poll tax on federal elections. Poll taxes were made in the south to prevent African A,ericans from voting. This event was also known as the Mississippi Summer Project and it was organized by COFO. It was a campaign in the US that was launched June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi. This special project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi which provided aid to the local black population. Murder of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Micheal Schwerner Civil Rights Act of 1964 On June 21, 1964 three young civil rights workers were mudered. This happend in Nashoba County in Mississippi. They were working to give blacks the right to vote. These boys were murdered by the Klu Klux Klan. Malcom X Assasinated This was a very important piece of legislation in the US that outlawed major forms of discrimination, such as racial, ethnic, national, religious, and women. It concluded all unequal segregation in schools, while also at work and by facilities that served the general public (public accommodations). Malcom x was assinated on February 21, 1965. While on stage three men approached the stage with pistols and a sawed off shotgun and killed him. Malcom belonged to the organization of African American Unity. He was hated by most whites even though he wasn't a very violent man. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Watts Riots The main purpose of this act was to really enforce the rights of the 15th amendment. Also to outlaw any voting discrimination, so it basically allowed everyone to vote now. This act was passed by congress on April 6, 1965. The Watts riots took place on Auguest 11-17,1965. These were a series of riots that lasted 6 days, killed 34 people over 1000 wounded. This left $50-$100 million in property damage. It all started by the arrest of a drunk driver in LA. Stokely Carmichael and "black power" Black Panthers are founded He was a black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He was very involved with everything going on in the CRM. He was the one to popularize the phrase "black power". The Black Panther Party (BPP) was founded on October 15, 1966. This was a black political organization originally known for self defense. This group originates out of Alabama. This group consists of socialism and Black nationalism. Loving vs Virginia Loving vs Virginia's trial started on April 10, 1967. This case was between a interracial couple for marrying each other. It was illegal for a white person and a black person to marry each other. They were sentenced to a year in prison. Newarks and Detroit Race Riots These were a series of riots that took place on July 12-17, 1967. They took 23 lives and caused over 10 million dollars in property damage. This did not slow down the hatred of blacks in the south. Kerner Commission The Kerner Commission was established on July 28, 1967. This was a 11 member commission to investigate the causes of the race riots. They searched through Detroit to find the leading causes. This investigation lasted 7 months. Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike This strike started on February 11, 1968. Sanitation workers went on strike due to the dangerous and unsafe conditions. 1300 sanitation workers protested against. The strike was then considered illegal and refused to meet with black leaders. Civil Rights Act of 1968 This act took place April 11, 1968. This act provided equal living conditions for all races. Blacks had less equal living conditions than whites. This act allowed them to be equal. Bloody Sunday Tommie Smith and John Carlos These two made a protest during their medal ceremony at the 1968 olympics. The protest was mostly for political issues. This took place on October 16, 1968. This was an incident that occurred in the January of 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland. 26 civil rights protesters were shot by the soldiers of the British Army. 13 men, 7 of which were only teenagers, died immediately or soon after. It was a tragic day in Civil Rights history. BY Marissa Salzillo & Anthony Cravotta
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