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Employee Training and Development

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Heena Patel

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of Employee Training and Development

Employee Training and Development
Training and Development
Lily Chen, Jen Choi, Tess Grunseich, Heena Patel
I/O Psych -- Morrissey

Principles of Learning
major learning principles can be applied to employee training
Training Methods and Techniques
Most companies use multiple and overlapping methods to train employees.
Training Needs Analysis
What are training needs?
Needs Analysis
A process of finding training needs
Example of Using Technology
Training Beyond Work

Practical education in mastering a skill or job. Adjusting to the new workplace successfully. Includes:
1. Decision making
2. Leadership skills
3. Goal setting
Battalia and Associates estimated 6-12 months for a new executive to become acclimated
Lawrie (1992)
Continuing education that focuses on the entire career span of an employee.
Correcting performance deficiencies
Maximizing performance
Aligning employees' skills to promotional needs
Cross-training for greater organizational flexibility
Developing a career path
New century, the most successful organizations will be involved in planning for entire life span of employees.

Super's Stages of
Career Development (1957)
1. Exploration Stage
2. Establishment Stage
3. Maintenance Stage
4. Disengagement Stage
History of Training
Ancient cultures
1. Unskilled novice
2. Journeyman
3. Master craftsman
Middle Ages: Apprenticeships (no pay)
20th century:
Training and Development as a profession
Industrial Revolution introduced the assembly line:
teamwork, job tasks, and focused assignments
Industrial age = vocational education
: computers came into play
Retirement Planning
Financial planning:
offered as companies attempt to shift financial responsibility for retirement to employees
Reitzes (1998)
Increase positive attitudes towards retirement
Benefits were more likely to retire
Retiring for positive reason
Women were more to retire
Reason: health, voluntary purposes, family reasons (, Mutran, Fernandez, 1998)
Gap between "what is" and "what ought to be"
Training that is designed to meet a clearly defined need
Types of Training Needs
What does organization need to meet its goals?
Skills and knowledge needed for job
Which skills need to be improved on?
Classical Conditioning
limited applications
Operant Conditioning
focus on rewarding correct behaviors
Schedules of Reinforcement
How often should an employee be rewarded?
Continuous vs. variable
Massed vs. Distributed Practice
Seymore, Wexley & Yukl, 1972
Whole vs. Part Learning
Is it more effective to have one long training session or several short sessions?
Is it more effective to have the whole task learned at once or have parts of the task presented at a time?
Active Practice
Cognitive Learning
dynamic participation enhances learning
involves looking at the underlying thought processes of learning
Readiness & Motivation
Are employees ready to start a training program?
resistance to training
employee self-efficacy
create a training culture
create a climate that encourages and promotes success in training
voluntary participation
Nordhaug, 1989 --
three dimensions of payoffs from training
motivation to learn
career development
psychosocial development
Transfer of Training
apply learned behaviors correctly to the job
best transfer of training -- when the training situation is like the real situation
positive transfer
negative transfer
On The Job Training
Job Instruction Training
Job Rotation
Apprenticeship Training
Case Studies
Role playing
Outdoor Experiential Training
Technology and Training
Audiovisual Training
Simulation Training
Virtual Reality
Programmed Instructions
linear programs
branching programs

4:11- 7:52
Whole-Part-Whole Model
Swanson & Law
First "whole" -- preparation and motivation
Part -- master individual parts
Second "whole" -- link the individual parts for a complete understanding
Techniques for Assessment
Pros and Cons for each technique
Focus Group
Document Review
Saari, Johnson, McLaughlin, & Zimmerle (1988)
Howell & Cook (1989)
Training needs are becoming more cognitively challenging
Need to examine cognitive processes required for job.
Where Does Training Fit in?
“70 percent of professional development comes from experiences on the job. Twenty percent typically occurs through coaching or mentoring. Formal training accounts for just 10 percent of all learning”- Olson, Adler, Harvey
Unlocking the Value of Web 2.0 Technologies for Training and Development
Manuel Londen and MJ Hall
Adaptive Learning
Generative Learning
Web 2.0
London, Mauel & Hall, MJ. (2011) Unlocking The Value of Web 2.0 Technologies For Training and Development: The Shift From Instructor- Controlled, Adaptive Learning to
Learner-Driven, Generative Learning Human Resource Management p. 758-775. dio:
Olson, Aaron & Harvey, Veronica & Adler, Seymore. (2013) 21st Century Training. AON
ONE. Q1 p. 38-42. Retrieved from :

Garavan, T. N., Costine, P., & Heraty, N. (1995). Training and development in Ireland: context, policy, and practice. Cengage Learning EMEA.
Krumm, D. (2000). Psychology at work: An introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Macmillan.409-452
McGehee, W. and P-W. Thayer. Training in Business and Industry. New York: Wiley, 1961.
Saari, L. M., Johnson, T. R., McLaughlin, S. D., & Zimmerle, D. M. (1988). A survey of management training and education practices in US companies.Personnel Psychology, 41(4), 731-743.
Tannenbaum, S. I., & Yukl, G. (1992). Training and development in work organizations. Annual review of psychology, 43(1), 399-441.

McGehee & Thayer (1961)
Organizational Analysis
Determine resources, establish goals
Task Analysis
Interview experts and high performing employees, review job descriptions
Personal Analysis
Review performance appraisals, interview supervisors
Examine management training and education practices
Questionnaires sent to 1,000 US companies with at least 1,000, including section on needs assessment
27% have practices for conducting needs assessment on managers
Positive correlation between the use of needs assessment and company size
Suggests TNA is more effective when conducted in large organizations
Needs Assessments done on first-level supervisors in 91% of companies, top-level supervisors - only 45%
Arthur Jr., W., Edens, P., Bell, S., & Bennet Jr., W. (2003). Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. Retrieved April 28th, 2015
Baldwin, T. T. (1992). Effects of alternative modeling strategies on outcomes of interpersonal-skills training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(1), 147-154
Reitzes, D. C., Mutran, E. J., & Fernandez, M. E. (1998). The Decision to Retire: A Career Perspective. Social Science Quarterly (University of Texas Press), 79(3), 607-619
Salomone P. R., (1996). Tracing Super’s Theory of Vocational Development: a 40-Year Retrospective. Journal Of Career Development (Spring Science and Business Media B. V.), 22(3), 167-184
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