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Why did Charles' personal rule collapse?
Transcript of Why did Charles' personal rule collapse?
Laud was determined to bring the Scottish church into line with what was happening to the English church.
In 1638 he used a royal proclamation to issue new canons on the conduct of services without reference to the general assembly of the Scottish church.
In 1637 a version of the new 1633 English prayer book was introduced. This sparked opposition from the Scots. In Edinburgh, riots broke out when the new Prayer Book was read.
In 1638, the Presbyterians introduced a National Covenant protesting the religious changes
It rejected the canons and the prayer book and eventually opened the way to thoroughgoing Presbyterianism.
Charles wanted to put down the rebellious Scots by force, but having little money, he was forced to raise levies of raw conscripts and mobilize the "trained bands" of England's Northern Counties.
The scots however were a highly-motivated force who, just returned from the battles of the Thirty Years War and were becoming more and more determined.
The collapse of the Personal Rule By Jasprit and Anne What were the short term and long term factors that led to the collapse of Charles' personal rule? The Long-term causes Tension Religion The short-term causes The Scottish crisis Laudianism and the new Prayer book Finance Ship money - lots of opposition to this
Nov 1637- King took John Hampden to court for not paying
His prosecution made the point that Charles' authority should be obeyed- this would help to create more opposition to his personal rule
According to E. Hyde: "the Crown and State sustained damage" due to the Hampden judgement
Was the Scottish rebellion that precipitated Hampden's case and led to more problems with the collection of ship money
Scottish rebellion, along with Hampden's case show signs of Charles' crumbling authority Religion Other reasons behind opposition to the personal rule were due to religious changes imposed
A lot of opposition to Arminianism particularly from Puritans
An example of one of the 1st open signs of oppositions religious changes imposed was St Gregory's case.
The changes to the church were reminiscent of Catholicism
1637: Puriatns John Bastwick, Henry burton and William Pryne were prosecuted for criticizing religious changes
They were publicly mutilated for this
Whig historians believe that Laudianism lead to a Puritan revolution (Laudianism will be further discussed later) Underlying causes of the Scottish Revolution Mary, Queen of Scots abdicated in 1567 - a Presbyterian church had been established in Scotland.
Charles showed little enthusiasm for Scottland.
The Scots felt annoyed by Charles neglect.
Scotland's institutions were given less prestige than England’s.
The English received the bulk of royal patronage and Scots were excluded from England’s growing overseas trade.
The nobility was excluded from power and alimented from the crown. The Scottish revolution Underlying Causes of the Scottish Revolution Act of revocation:
In 1625, Charles revoked all grants of land made by the crown since 1540.
It affected almost all families of substance and was an extraordinarily tactless move.
The landowners saw themselves as rightful owners of the land
Feared that if it returned to the church it could lead to a strong Roman Catholic model of a church.
This also worried the English gentry as they thought Charles might find a way to do the same thing in England. Finance