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social science research method

ch5.6
by

Shuo-Chen Wu

on 22 June 2013

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Transcript of social science research method

Thank you
CH9
Assembling Reasons
and Evidence
Why evidences itself are rarely include in our report?Please make an example .


Are you a skeptical readers?Which part is the
Weakest part in your mind?
Questions
In a claim, what part do the readers question the most?


Unfortunately, your readers found your weak spot in your claim. What would you do?
Questions
A statement must report a shared,public fact


Really skeptical readers just never give up
9.2
Distinguishing Evidence From Reasons

Mind Map
9.1
Using Reasons to Plan your Argument
Researchers cannot share with their
9.3
Distinguishing Evidence from Reports of It
Data have invariably been shaped
by the source Facts are shaped by those.
9.3
Distinguishing Evidence from Reports of It
Acknowledgments and Responses
CH10
a.The core of your argument is a claim
backed by reasons based on evidence.

b.But if you plan your argument only
around claims, your readers may think
your argument is not only thin but worse.

c.You must respond to their predictable
questions and objections.
question your problem
10.1 Questioning Your Argument
as Your Readers will
question your solution
10.1 Questioning Your Argument
as Your Readers will
question your support
10.1 Questioning Your Argument
as Your Readers will
10.1 Questioning Your Argument
as Your Readers will
Should I just dismiss the evidence
which is irrelevant?

What will readers think about my claim?
10.2 Imagining Alternatives
to Your Argument
10.3.1 Selecting Objections to Respond To

5 ways to narrow down alternatives or objections:

plausible charges of weaknesses that you can rebut

alternative lines of argument important in your field

alternative conclusions that readers want to be true

alternative evidence that readers know

important counterexamples that you have to explain away
10.3 DECIDING WHAT TO ACKNOWLEDGE
Goldilocks Moment
Tell The Truth

Turn Failure into Success
10.3.2
Acknowledging Questions
You Can’t Answer
Respond to Alternatives

Respond with More Reasons and Evidence

A Goldilocks Choice
10.4
FRAMING YOUR RESPONSES
AS SUBORDINATE ARGUMENTS
Just downplay them with:
[Despite/Regardless of/Notwithstanding]
Congress’s claims that it wants to cut taxes,
acknowledgment
the
public believes that.....
response

[Although/While/Even though]
there are economic problems in Hong Kong,
acknowledgment
Southeast Asia remains
a strong
.
...
response
10.5.1
Acknowledging Objections
and Alternatives
Signal them indirectly:

In his letters Lincoln expresses what [seems/appears] to be

depression.
acknowledgment
But those who observed

him...
response
10.5.1
Acknowledging Objections
and Alternatives
The Craft of
Research CH9~10
From tactful to blunt

Focus on the work, not the person
10.5.2
Responding to Objections
and Alternatives
Storyboard
readers "the evidence itself"
You think that you`ve got everything done
but....the truth is....

In sum, a crucial step in assembling your
argument is to test your argument as
your readers will, even in ways they might not.
9.4
Evaluating Your Evidence
9.4.1 Report Evidence Accurately

9.4.2 Be Appropriately Precise
some,most,many,almost,often,usually........
Is it sufficient and representative?
1.If you discover a weakness in your argument, what should you do?






A.Reason why alternative is irrelevant

B.Subreason

C.Acknowledgment of alternative claim

D.Report of evidence
Questions
exceptions to a definition

an alternative solution
2 kinds of alternatives
3 Reasons to Fail to Acknowledge Alternatives

Can’t Think of Any

Fear to Weaken Their
Argument

Lack a Vocabulary to Express Them
10.5
THE VOCABULARY OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT
2.If you find out that your readers don’t have enough basic knowledge
about your argument, and you want to explain it more clearly in order to
make a response to their alternatives, how will you organize your argument?
(Try to reorder the following parts of an argument )
Full transcript