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International Relations

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Aril

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of International Relations

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Submitted by:
Alma SELAMI

INTERNATIONAL
ECONOMIC
RELATIONS

Albania
and Kosovo

REALISM
Thucydides Machiavelli
Out side of academy , Realism has a much longer history in the work of classical political theorists such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes
*deficiencies of idealist thinking
What is IER?
IER is a discipline within political science that analyzes economics and international relations, the ways in which political forces shape the systems and conversely the effect that economic interactions have upon political structures and outcomes.

Levels of Power
determined by


-economic size
-
The State's Military
Economic Size
Traditional Approaches
Levels of Power
The key to national wealth & power is economic growth.

The key to economic growth is free trade.

Political leaders should allow trade between nations to expand and deepen and keep government intervention in that trade down to a minimum => imports and exports flourish with as little restriction as possible.

Marketplace should make the economic decisions, not the government.

REALISM: Four Basic Assumptions:
1) The state is the most important actor in international relations
REALISM: Four Basic Assumptions:
2)

-The state is a unitary and rational actor
"the state speaks with one voice"
REALISM: Four Basic Assumptions:
3) International relations are essentially conflictual because of
anarchy.
Senkaku Dispute
Sinking of Cheonan
China-Philippines
Stand Off
REALISM: Four Basic Assumptions:
4) The most basic concern of all states is survival
e.g. North Korea
REALISM: One or Many?
1) CLASSICAL REALISM
Key thinker – Thucydides
International politics is driven by an endless struggle for
power
which has its roots in
human nature
.
2) STRUCTURAL REALISM
Anarchical system fosters fear, suspicion and insecurity and leads to a logic of self-help that states seek to maximize their security.

Two parts: defensive realism and offensive realism.
Kenneth Waltz
3) NEOCLASSICAL REALISM
The systemic account of world politics provided by structural realism is incomplete. It needs to be supplemented with better accounts of unit level variables such as how power is perceived and how leadership is exercised.
3) NEOCLASSICAL REALISM
"refine, not refute, Kenneth Waltz", by adding domestic intervening variables between systemic incentives and a state's foreign policy decision.

Thus, the basic theoretical architecture of Neoclassical Realism is:
Distribution of power
in the international system
(independent variable)
Domestic perception
of the system and/or
domestic incentives
(intervening variable)
Foreign Policy decision
(dependent variable)
MARXISM
Marxist Theories
Japan and South Korea have conflicting sovereignty claims over the Liancourt Rocks.

-DOKDO in Korean
-TAKESHIMA in Japanese

The status quo favors Seoul because it is currently under the jurisdiction of South Korea.
Institutionalism
They share many of Realism’s assumptions about the international system
— that it is anarchic, that States are self-interested, rational actors seeking to survive while increasing their material conditions, and that uncertainty pervades relations between countries.

They believe that
co-operation between nations is possible.

Late last year, China submitted its claim to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an institution established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Both Beijing and Tokyo are signatories to the UN Law of the Sea Convention.
Japanese Position:
UN SHOULD NOT BE INVOLVED.
DOUBLE STANDARD
Dokdo/Takeshima Dispute:
Diaoyu/Senkaku Dispute:
YES to INT'L INSTITUTIONS
NO to INT'L INSTITUTIONS
Is this unique to Japan?
China's 9-line map
Albania, along with SU countries & Eastern Europe and China had planned economy.

1960 - China and the SU “divorced” in 1960, the Albanian communist government stood alone on Chinese side=> placing Albania in a difficult position with its European/Western neighbors.

1970 - Albania interrupted her relations with China and thus became completely isolated.

1990 - after the fall of communism the overall GDP of Eastern Europe countries decreased 355 units, the lowest value since the Great Depression in 1930’s.

Kosovo
and
IER
Recommendations
Fall of Saddam Hussein
Conclusions
Chaos in Syria
REALISM
Has NO NUCLEAR
WEAPONS PROGRAM
Has NUCLEAR
WEAPONS Program
Taliban/Afghanistan
Iraq
Libya
Syria
Iran
North Korea
Israel
(Assumed)
FAILED
SURVIVING
Conclusion
We think ‘Realism’ is still superior than other IR theories because it recognizes reality as it is, which in turn enables it to explain state behaviors and foreign policies more convincingly.
THANK YOU
감사합니다
The reality is, a state will always pursue its security and national interests, and maximize its power whenever it can, to survive and to thrive in an anarchic international system.
Discussion Questions:
Q. In the future, do you think states will become subordinate to international institutions? Explain.

Q. Can realism help us to understand the globalization of world politics?

Q. Is our perspective on LOVE based on realism or idealism?
Contents
I. Introduction IER

II. Traditional approaches in IER

III. Globalization and IER

IV. IER in AL and KS

V. Conclusions

VI. Recommendations
Liberalism
Realism
Marxism
Institutionalism
This theory discusses the separation of the classes with an emphasis on the economics of a particular country, placing economic status over any other aspect of civilization.

Realism and idealism are self-serving theories that are used by the economic elite to justify the inequalities of the world.

World-Systems Theory
Dependency Theory

Focuses on the redistribution of raw materials from poor countries to the wealthier countries .

This creates benefits for the wealthier, industrialized countries.

The world is divided into
Core countries
(responsible for higher-skill work and production of the most capital.)
Periphery and semi-periphery countries
(poor areas of the world, providing manual labor,)

Albania

and IER
While under FYR, Kosovo’s economy became an addition to the Serbian economy this hindered its normal integration.


Considering Kosovo’s size and the fact that it doesn’t have access to sea trade, it’s economic success depends on the regional integration, attracting new investors and privatization processes.

Politics should serve to economic interests.

I) State should play an important role in guaranteeing economic growth.

II) Public sector plays a crucial role especially during economic depression or trade’s failures.

III) Business community should engage in respecting the rules of trade economy and fair competition.

A stronger international partnership should be established not only in the economic or political field but in others as well.

The international trade liberalization, customs practices and tax reductions should be encouraged to remove all the barriers to ensure economic freedom.

A new European economic treaty should be established.

A multilateral cooperation among region’s states especially neighbors should be established.
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