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The Crusades

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Miriam Ramirez

on 8 November 2009

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Transcript of The Crusades

The Crusades Early Crusades Later Crusades Background Date Event
330 Constantine I makes Constantinople his capital.
527 Justinian I becomes Emperor.
532-537 Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia
1054 The Church in Constantinople breaks with the Church in
Rome
1204 Constantinople is captured by crusaders
1261 Constantinople is liberated by the Byzantine emperor
Michael Palaeologus.
1453Ottoman Turks take Constantinople. End of Byzantine Empire Timeline Byzantine Empire Map of the Crusades 11th Century to the 13th Century a series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims Definition of Crusades Push for Crusades Byzantine Emperor Alexius I help from Europeans against the Seljuk Turk
Pope Urban II Responded
Saw opportunity to provide papal leadership for the great cause
Rallied the Warriors of Europe for the liberation of Jerusalem and the Holy Land
From the infidels unbelievers Council of Clermont France Warriors from France mostly made up the First Crusade
Motivated by religious fervor, as well as other attractions
Adventure welcomed their favorite pastime FIGHTING
Others... Sought to gain territory, riches, and possible a title
Merchants desired new trading opportunities in Byzantine and Muslim Lands
Early Crusades First Crusade Began as three organized bands of warriors
Consisting of several thousand
Army captured Antioch in 1098
Continued on down the Palestine Coast Jerusaelm in June 1099 Holy City was taken amid a horrible massacre of its inhabitants Further Conquest crusaders organized FOUR Latin Crusader states Surrounded by Muslims, these kingdoms depended
on Italian cities for supplies from Europe
Port cities such as Genoa, Pisa, Venice grew rich and powerful Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Fall of one Latin kingdom led to calls for another crusade King Louis VII, France Emperor Conrad III of Germany Second Crusade enlisted TWO powerful rulers Campaign Falied Saladin 1187 Holy City of Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under three important rulers agree to lead THIRD Crusade Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
Richard THE LION HEART of Englnd
Philip II Agustus King of France Third Crusade Arrived in 1189 encountered numerous problems
Frederick drowned
English and French able to capture coastal cities
Failed at moving inland against Muslim forces King Richard THE LION HEART of England Negotiated a settlement with Saladin that permitted
Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusaelm The Later Crusades Pope Innocent III intiated the FOURTH Crusade after Saladin's death in 1193 Crasading army while heading east became
involved in a fight over the succession of the Byzantine throne Venetian leaders took advantage of this
to weaken their greatest commercial competitor
the Byzantine Empire As result diverted to Constantinople
and sacked the city in 1204 Byzantine army did not recapture city till 1261
Was reestablished but no longer a powerful empire Justinian the Great- Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire decline Byzantine Empire coasted along till 190 years
Ottoman Turks conquered it in 1453, Istanbul The Children's Crusade Nicolas of Cologne God had inspired him to lead a "children's crusade" Thousands joined as they made their way to Italy
20,000 French children headed to Marseille
Two ships sent perished in storms
Five others went to North Africa and were sold into slavery Effects of the Crusades Historians disagree There is no doubt it effected Italian ports such as Genoa, Pisa and Venice
Historians believed these Italian merchants would have begun trade regardless Negative Effects widespread attacks on Jews
Massacred of Jews became feature of Medieval European life
Greatest Impact political Helped break down fuedalism As nobles joined crusades and sold land serfs set free As nobles lost power Kings able to establish stronger central government
Taxing trade in east created new wealth for Kings Mid- 1400s Four strong states emerged in Europe Spain
Portugal
England
France
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