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Anna Garcia's Stomach Content Macromolecule Verification

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on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Anna Garcia's Stomach Content Macromolecule Verification

Stomach Contents
Anna Garcia did not have a balanced diet of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
In the Glucose Tolerance Test, her blood levels were high because of the food she was eating
The increased amount of carbohydrates ingested coupled with her diabetes could have spiked her glucose levels
Anna Garcia's Stomach Content Macromolecule Verification
Our Experiment
Hypothesis Conclusion
Background Information
What was used to perform it?
Hypotheses
How it ties to the Glucose Tolerance Test
Materials Needed
Many materials were need in order to complete this experiments
• Anna Garcia simulated stomach contents
• Project 2.2.1 Autopsy Report resource sheet
• Project 2.2.1 Anna Garcia Food Diary resource sheet
• 200 mL of distilled water in a beaker
• Hot plate with beaker containing distilled water (to make a hot water bath)
• Test tube rack
• Test tube holder
• 1 beaker, 250 mL
• 1 beaker, 500mL
• 1 graduated cylinder, 10mL
• Mortar and pestle (optional)
• Oven mitt
• 2 stirring rods

Relation to Glucose Tolerance Test
By:
Madhuri Molleti
Hannah Zbuchalski
Jarrett Moore
Joyce Jung

In the next 3 slides, the results for the food substances and stomach content will be displayed
Results
Positive for starch and lipids
Positive for protein, but not a very vibrant and clear purple due to dilution or a cloudy solution
Not negative for glucose, but not completely positive. Could be due to dilution. The color is the same as the positive control when it was heated for only around one minute

Crackers (Food Substance)
Positive for starch and lipids
Positive for protein, but not a very vibrant and clear purple, more grey due to dilution or a cloudy solution
Not negative for glucose, but not completely positive. Could be due to dilution. The color is the same as the positive control when it was heated for only around one and a half minutes
Funyuns (Food
Substance)
Stomach Contents

If we test Anna Garcia’s stomach contents for glucose using Benedict’s solution, then it will test positive for glucose

If we test Anna Garcia’s stomach contents for starch using Lugol’s solution, then it will test positive for starch

If we test Anna Garcia’s stomach contents for protein using Biuret’s solution, then it will test positive for protein

If we test Anna Garcia’s stomach contents for lipids using brown paper, then it will test positive for lipids.
** If we test Anna Garcia's stomach contents for lipids (using brown paper), protein (using Biuret's solution), starch (using Lugol's solution), and glucose (using Benedict's solution), then it will test positive for all four
Crackers
Funyuns
If the substance wasn’t already a solution, we grinded 5 grams of the food substance (using pestle and mortar), combined it with 100mL of water, and stirred it until it formed a solution.
For testing glucose we first made a hot water bath (of 200 mL of distilled water) to near boiling. Then, we placed 1 mL of the Benedict solution in a test tube labeled Ben1. Following that, we added 1 mL of the substance solution to that test tube. Finally, we submerge the bottom of the test tube in the hot water bath for three minutes and observed.
For testing starch we first placed 3 drops of Lugol’s iodine in a test tubes labeled Lu1. We then placed 1 mL of the substance solution in that same test tube. Finally, we stirred and observed.
For testing protein we first placed 3 drops of Biuret’s solution in a test tubes labeled Biu1. We then placed 1 mL of the substance solution in that test tube. Finally, we stirred and observed.
For testing lipids we first placed 1 to 2 drops of stomach content solution onto a piece of brown paper labeled #1. After that, we let it dry. Finally, if we couldn’t tell if it was transparent or not, we held it up to the light and observed.

Stomach Contents Hypotheses
The Indicator Personalities
Benedict’s solution tests for glucose and turns orange when glucose is present. Benedict’s solution only reacts with reducing sugars, not non-reducing.
Lugol’s solution tests for starches and turns black/blue when it comes in contact with starch.
Biuret’s solution tests for protein, and turns purple when protein is indicated in a solution or substance.
The brown paper bag tests for lipids, and becomes transparent when lipids hit it’s surface.
Sudan III can also be used to test for lipids, but in this experiment we only used the brown paper bag.

The Cause
The purpose of our experiment is to confirm the four major macromolecules using indicators to identify Anna Garcia's cause of death. The four major macromolecules are glucose, starches, protein, and lipids. We used four indicators to find the presence of these substances. Through other tests we have concluded that she was diabetic which may be the cause of her death.

Factors of Diabetes
Anna's food diary confirmed our assumption that she was having a high intake of carbohydrates. One cause of diabetes is obesity. Obesity is a high percentage of fat due to eating excess fats and carbohydrates. In her food diary, she ate foods with mostly carbohydrates and fats. This coupled with her diabetes lead us to begin testing for certain macromolecules, like glucose and lipids.
Stomach Contents
Positive for glucose, starch, and lipids
Positive for protein, but not a very vibrant and clear purple due to dilution or a cloudy solution

Conclusion
In conclusion, we tested for the presence of glucose using the Benedict's indicator, starch using Lugol's solution, protein using the Biuret's solution, and lipids using the brown paper bag. We concluded that all four macromolecules were found in Anna Garcia's stomach contents. The presence of glucose adds to the fact that Anna Garcia had diabetes. Also, excessive intake of lipids can cause obesity. Obesity is a common cause of type 2 diabetes, which results in high glucose levels. When we tested crackers and Funyuns for glucose, the resulting color was not orange but green. The tests for starch, protein, and lipids were all positive for crackers and Funyuns.
Cracker Hypotheses
Cracker

If we test Buttery Smooth Crackers for glucose using Benedict’s solution, then it will test negative for glucose

If we test Buttery Smooth Crackers for starch using Lugol’s solution, then it will test positive for starch

If we test Buttery Smooth Crackers for protein using Biuret’s solution, then it will test positive for protein

If we test Buttery Smooth Crackers for lipids using brown paper, then it will test positive for lipids.
** If we test Buttery Smooth Crackers for lipids (using brown paper), protein (using Biuret's solution), starch (using Lugol's solution), and glucose (using Benedict's solution), then it will test negative for glucose, and positive for starch, proteins, and lipids.
Funyun Hypotheses
Funyun

If we test Funyuns for glucose using Benedict’s solution, then it will test negative for glucose

If we test Funyuns for starch using Lugol’s solution, then it will test positive for starch

If we test Funyuns for protein using Biuret’s solution, then it will test positive for protein

If we test Funyuns for lipids using brown paper, then it will test positive for lipids.
** If we test Funyuns for lipids (using brown paper), protein (using Biuret's solution), starch (using Lugol's solution), and glucose (using Benedict's solution), then it will test negative for glucose, and positive for starch, proteins, and lipid
Major Materials
• Positive and Negative controls for each test:
o Starch solution, 5% corn starch or other starch soluble in water
o Protein solution, 5% albumin in water
o Sugar solution, 5% glucose in water
o Lipid solution, cooking oil
• 8 transfer pipettes
• 2-3 food samples and Anna Garcia's stomach contents
• 12 test tubes
• Benedict’s solution
• Lugol’s Iodine stain
• Biuret stain
• Brown paper, multiple pieces, approximately 2 to 3 cm square
• Safety goggles
• Gloves
• Laboratory apron
Purpose
Independent Variable- Stomach contents, Crackers, and Funyuns
Dependent Variable- Test Results
Independent variable- Stomach content, crackers, and Funyuns
Dependent veriable- Test results
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