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The O-Wing

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Gillian Xu

on 6 September 2013

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Transcript of The O-Wing

The O-Wing

By: Gillian Xu
Background Research

The O-Wing glider, also known as a hoop wing or a ring wing, is a flying contraption simply constructed out of household items. This glider consists of two circular (O-shaped) wings and a fuselage (straw). The wings of the glider have enough lift to balance the weight of the glider, allowing the plane to fly with ease.
Being a glider, three basic forces act on the O-Wing: lift, drag and weight.
Lift is the force which allows the aircraft to stay aloft, created by the wings and counteracting the weight. In this case, lift is produced by the O shaped wings attached on either ends of the straw.
Drag is the aerodynamic force which opposes the aircraft's motion, slowing down the movement of the plane. It is a force proposed on all parts of the glider. This is generated by the interaction of a solid body (aircraft) with a fluid (gas or liquid).
Weight is produced by the gravitational of the Earth on the glider. It is a force that can either work for or against the aircraft. If the weight of the object is lighter, it will allow the flight to stay aloft longer and travel further. However, if the aircraft is heavier, the speed will be greater but will not stay in the air for long.


Videos
This O-Wing glider has a ratio of 2:5 (10cm - 25cm)
This O-Wing glider has a ratio of 3:5 (15cm - 25cm)
This O-Wing glider has a ratio of 4:5 (20cm - 25cm)
The O-Wing glider has a ratio of 1:1 (25cm - 25cm)
Note: All videos taken outdoors but experiment
conducted indoors
Planning Log
Planning Process:
- Gather information on the O-Wing glider, discover the different forces acting upon the aircraft and the best way to fly it
- Buy equipment needed for this experiment: straws, scissors, paper clips, sticky tape, pencils and cardboard paper
- Perform risk assessment task; consider the flying space area
- Determine all the controls and variables (dependent and independent) that will affect this experiment
- Propose experiment and take photos whilst experiment is taking place
- Write up a formal experimental record; create the aim, hypothesis, method, results and conclusion
- Include a reflection, discussion and bibliography and then document all information into a Prezi
- Add pictures, change colour of fonts and layout of text
- Submit final product to Moodle
Diagram of the O-Wing glider showing the three forces acting upon it
Equipment bought for the experiment
Variables:

The independent variable in this experiment is the ratio of the small and large rings. The size of the smaller ring is changed continuously throughout the experiment in order to determine the best aircraft used for flying.
The dependent variable in this experiment is the duration of the flight.The glider is timed from when it is thrown into the sky from when it reaches the ground. The time of the aircraft is measured in seconds.
Experimental Controls:
- The length of the straw
The length of the straw (16cm) was used throughout the experiment to eliminate any inaccuracy, and the weight of the O-Wing glider could not be altered
- The width of all wings
The width of all wings used in this experiment were kept the same (2cm)
- Test area
The experiment was tested in a hallway indoors to avoid the wind blowing and making the glider fly off course. All windows and doors were closed to eliminate any errors in measurement.
- The size of the larger wing
The size of the larger wing (25cm) is kept consistent throughout the experiment so that the smaller ring (alternating ring), is always being compared to the same ring. This will not make the ratios inaccurate and false.
Risk Assessment

Before flying the O-Wing glider, I made sure there was no-one standing in the area of flight, apart from myself. This reduced the risk of any major injuries. If this was not done before I threw the plane, it could have easily hit someone in the eye, causing unnecessary wounds.
Whilst handling scissors, it was important to watch where I was cutting. This decreased the chances of me injuring myself and giving myself cuts.
Using cardboard can be dangerous as it can cause minor but painful paper cuts. Whilst using this material, i made sure i was focused and concentrated. I maintained all my attention to the paper so i did not cut myself with the edge of the paper.

The width of the wings are all kept the same
The size of the larger wing is kept consistent throughout the experiment, only alternating the smaller wing
Reliability
To ensure that the reliability of the experiment was accurate, I repeated the experiment more than once, recording all the results. Each of the O-Wing gliders, with different ratios, were repeated 5 times, in order to obtain a variety of results. An average was also recorded after each test.
Reliability was also ensured as measurements were made as accurate as possible. All measurements were measured and checked more than once to eliminate error.
Validity
Validity was ensured as the same material was used for each test. The same cardboard paper, straw and sticky tape were used in each experiment as it did not alter the weight of the O-Wing and allowed the results to be as valid as possible.
Instead of measuring the distance, flight time was measured. Measuring the glider's duration aloft was used rather than measuring the distance travelled to determine the best aircraft to decrease the chances of any false results. Measuring the distance thrown can be inaccurate as there may be curves to measure.
Formal Experimental Record

Aim:

To determine how altering the small to large ratio of the O-Wing glider can impact the flight time
Hypothesis:
As the size of the smaller ring decreases, the O-Wing glider will stay aloft longer, therefore, increasing the flight time
1. Gathered equipment (scissors, sticky tape, ruler, pencil, cardboard paper, paper clips and straws) acquired for the experiment.
2. Materials were measured and cut to desired lengths. Straws were cut to 16cm, and pieces of cardboard paper were cut into lengths of 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and 25cm, with widths of 2cm.
3. Attached two circle rings to either ends of the straw, secured with sticky tape and paper clips.
4. Gliders were then flown in an open space indoors to ensure reliability.
5. Timed the flight duration of the O-Wing glider and photos/videos were taken
6. Repeated steps 1-5, five times with the same O-Wing, to eliminate inaccuracy.
7. Steps 1-6, were repeated altering the ratio of the small and large wings.
8. Results were then recorded and graphed.
Method:
Wings were made out of cardboard paper and sticky tape
Then attached to either ends of the straw
Final O-Wing glider
Results:

Results Table
Results recorded into a line graph
Bibliography:
Meerman, Ruben. 2004. The "O-Wing" Experiment.
http://www.abc.net.au/science/surfingscientist/pdf/lesson_plan06.pdf
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
Benson, Tom. 2010. Three Forces on a Glider.
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/glidfor.html
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
HowStuffWorks. 2013. How Gliders Work.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/glider3.htm
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
C. Stephanie. 2004. Hoop Glider.
http://pbskids.org/zoom/printables/activities/pdfs/hoopglider.pdf
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
How Gliders Stay in the Air.
http://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/flightglider.htm
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)

Conclusion:

From the results shown, it is obvious that the O-Wing glider with a ratio of 3:5, stayed aloft for the longest. The glider with the smallest O-Wing, ratio of 2:5, did not fly very well and had the shortest flight time. This proves my hypothesis to be incorrect, as I stated that as the smaller ring decreases, the glider will have a longer flight time.
The O-Wing with ratio 3:5, proved to fly better than the glider with the smallest ratio of 2:5
Reflection:
While performing the O-Wing experiment, I was faced with a number of problems. One of these include the fact that the wings of the O-Wing glider were not lined up accurately. It was difficult to position the two wings in the center of the straw, as it was continuously moving. This caused the glider to tilt as it was flying, resulting in some errors in the flight time.
This problem could have been overcome by marking the center of the straw, in order for the paper wings to be placed correctly. In doing this, inaccuracy would have been limited.
Another problem I encountered was the different throwing forces. Each throw was very similar, however, they were not exactly the same. The different throwing forces could have affected the flight time, altering the results. This problem could have been overcome by dropping the O-Wing glider off the exact same height each time. I could have dropped each glider off the balcony, or even on a higher step without using any force. This would have allowed the gliders to have an accurate result and the forces would have stayed the same.
Discussion:
As seen in this experiment, differentiating the front and back wings of an aircraft can be applied to any real-life situation. Having a small and large wing can allow any aircraft to balance the forces (lift, drag and weight) acting upon it. This can be effective as it can provide many gliders with a great amount of flight time and a long durations in the sky. Although, many planes in our society today are very strong and efficient, however, changing the wing-to-wing ratios of the aircraft can have a variety of positive impacts.
Meerman, Ruben. 2004. The "O-Wing" Experiment.
http://www.abc.net.au/science/surfingscientist/pdf/lesson_plan06.pdf
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
Benson, Tom. 2010. Three Forces on a Glider.
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/glidfor.html
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
HowStuffWorks. 2013. How Gliders Work.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/flight/modern/glider3.htm
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
C. Stephanie. 2004. Hoop Glider.
http://pbskids.org/zoom/printables/activities/pdfs/hoopglider.pdf
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)
How Gliders Stay in the Air.
http://www.mansfieldct.org/Schools/MMS/staff/hand/flightglider.htm
(Last accessed 25 August 2013)

Bibliography
Full transcript