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Chapter 8: What is Bandura's Linear-Interactionist Social-Cognitive Learning Theory?
Transcript of Chapter 8: What is Bandura's Linear-Interactionist Social-Cognitive Learning Theory?
What is Bandura's Linear-Interactionist Social-Cognitive Learning Theory? presentation by Shannon McCauley Albert Bandura (1925- ) Professor of Psychology at Stanford University
Areas of interest: social learning, human aggression in adolescents, and psychologycial modeling Cognitive Interaction: The interaction of individuals with their perceived meaningful environments It is not an automatic action; we do not do not merely process information about the outcomes of our behavior; instead, we integrate the information in order to make cognitive sense of matters involving ourselves and the world around us
Environmental events, personal factors, and behavior all operate as interacting determinants of each other Bandura's
Learning Theory •Linear = perceptions and behaviors are viewed as occurring in sequences
Interactive = not only do people interact with situations, but they also affect the situations with which they interact
Social = behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental influences all operate interactively as determinants of each other
Cognitive = cognition is a central knowing process in learning procedures Therefore... Bandura’s theory centers upon how people gain understandings of themselves and their environments and how they act in relation to those understandings. This theory does include some aspects of reinforcement theory, but “reinforcement” has a much different meaning than that of Skinner’s radical behaviorism....
Reinforcement works because the consequences of past behavior have created expectations of insights concerning the likelihood of similar outcomes on future similar occasions
Human beings do not simply respond to stimuli, but they interpret them.
“So-called conditional reactions are largely self-activated on the basis of learned expectations rather than automatically evoked” Human beings are thinking organisms who possess capabilities to provide themselves with some degree of self-direction.
Intention & Goal Setting play prominent roles in self-regulation of behavior.
Intention = a determination to perform certain activities or to attain a certain future state of affairs
Goal setting = enhances motivation through self-reactive influences
The Nature & Motivation of Humankind...
Bandura believes that person-environment interaction is a reciprocal process
In this process, people learn to predict events and to make anticipating reactions to the events.
Rather than trying to achieve solutions by enacting possible alternative actions and suffering the consequences of each, our higher mental capacities enable us to use thought as well as action in solving problems.
Reciprocal Psychological Interaction The Functions of Consequences: Impart information that serves as a guide for action
Provide the intervening influence of thought
Motivate the person through their incentive value
Provide anticipatory benefits and averters of future trouble
Bring remote consequences to bear through the person exercising anticipatory thought
Give rise to examples and precepts that outline standards of conduct, which serve as a basis for self-reinforcing actions
Conditions of Reinforcement... Determined by neither the environment nor the person alone
When there is no awareness of what is being reinforced, consequences generally produce little change in behavior.
Bandura recognizes three kinds of reinforcement:
o Direct external
o Vicarious Reinforcement
Direct External Reinforcement: People regulate their behavior on the basis of consequences they experience directly Self-Administered Reinforcement: People regulate their behavior on the basis of the consequence that they create for themselves Vicarious Reinforcement: People regulate and change their behavior based upon consequences that they see accruing to other people who, as models, manifest the behaviors in similar situations Modeling: the process within which a person observes the behaviors of others, forms an idea of the performance and results of the observed behaviors, and uses that idea as coded information to guide future behaviors
Three Different Types of Modeling: DIRECT MODELING: a person copies the behavior of a model in the form in which the person has observed it and its consequences.
SYNTHESIZED MODELING: features of different model behaviors are formed into a combination that may represent different styles of thought and action.
ABSTRACT MODELING: observers derive principles or understandings that underlie specific performances and apply them so as to generate innovative behavior patterns that transcend anything they have either seen or heard
Componants of Vicarious Learning...
The Attentional Process: involves a person observing a model’s experience so as to learn from the model.
The Retentional Process: through coding and symbolic rehearsal, transitory experiences are transformed for memory representation into enduring performance guides
The Motoric Reproduction Process: the learning of many skilled acts, such as driving, requires many small components to be mastered
The Observational Reinforcement Process: consists of a person translating into action the ideas of behaviors that have been formed through observation and observing the consequences.
Implications for my teaching...
Reciprocal human relationship is one of the conditioner and the conditioned—the teacher and students—operating as personal, behavioral, and environmental determinants of one another’s behaviors.
Control through information is more pervasive and powerful than conditioning through contiguity of events.
Cognitive learning is promoted through instruction, modeling, and performance feedback.
People learn and retain much better by using cognitive aids that they generate than by repetitive reinforced performance.
Frequent constructive feedback
Students' awareness of specific goals.