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Relief to Development

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Ramsey Kosovo

on 24 July 2014

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Transcript of Relief to Development

After the Disaster....

The Stages of Disaster Recovery
Stress Responses and Coping

Change in Activity
Decreased efficiency and effectiveness
Difficulty communicating
Increased use of humor
Outbursts of anger
Inability to rest or "let down"
Change in eating habits
Change in sleeping patterns
Change in patterns of intimacy, sexuality
Change in job performance
Social withdrawal, silence
Vigilance about safety, environment
Avoidance of activities or places that trigger memories
Proneness to accidents
Exaggerated startle reaction

Crises Debriefing and Crises Defusing
On site, ideally shortly after an event.
Informal "check in":
1. Event (What happened?)
2. Feelings (What feelings were you aware of? then? now?)
3. Thoughts (What thoughts do you have about what happened).
4. Affirm
Responder Care
Help without hurting: Relief to Development

Comprehension of disaster
Collecting facts
Gearing up for response
Anxiety, restlessness irritability
Initial shock both for survivor and responders
Supplies equipment and personnel are inventoried
Community needs assessed
Mutual aid may be requested
Responders move into action
: staffing at shelters
meal sites, morgues, command centers
High Activity. High Stress. Heroic Action
Disaster operations that continue for more than a day or two require breaks, food, sleep and stress management or worker burnout will occur.
: vital life-support systems returned to operation.
Response workers:from disaster operation to "normal" routine of work and family life. If feelings were repressed during the action phase they will began to surface. Workers may experience a "letdown" as they return to usual activities.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). Training manual for mental health and human services workers in major disasters, second edition. Washington, DC: SAMHSA.


Anxiety and fear
Worry about safety of self or others
Sadness, grief, depression
Guilt or "survivor guilt"
Feeling overwhelmed, hopeless
Feeling isolated, lost or abandoned
Periods of crying
Identification with survivors
Feeling invulnerable, euphoric


Increased heartbeat
Increased blood pressure
Upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea
Sweating or chills
Tremor (hands, lips)
Muscle twitching
"Muffled" hearing
Tunnel vision
Feeling uncoordinated
Soreness in muscles
Lower back pain
Feeling a "lump in the throat"
Menstrual cycle changes
Decreased resistance to infection
Flare up of allergies and arthritis
Hair loss


Distressing dreams
Intrusive thoughts
Fitful sleep


Memory problems
Slowness of thinking and comprehension
Difficulty calculating, setting priorities
Difficulty making decisions
Poor concentration
Limited attention span
Loss of objectivity
Unable to stop thinking about disaster


Chest Pain
Irregular heartbeat
Difficulty breathing
Fainting or dizziness
Unusually high blood pressure
Numbness or paralysis of part of the body
Excessive dehydration
Frequent vomiting
Blood in stool

Requiring Prompt Medical Attention
Interpersonal skills
Frequent arguments
Angry outbursts
Social withdrawal
Job performance problems
Avoidance of co-workers
Family relationship problems
Use a buddy system to watch each other for stress
Schedule breaks away from the disaster response area
Schedule sleep breaks
DO talk and share experiences with other responders...expect "disaster humor".
Schedule recreational and leisure activities away from the disaster area.
Keep contact with home through phone calls and keeping personal reminders of family.

Stress Management
Breathing techniques
Muscle relaxation
Meditation on scripture
Physical Activity
Thought redirection

Ideally, 24-78 hours after the event.
Never:before 24 hours or after 6 months.
Formal, closed group, professional.

Corbett, S. and B. Fikkert. 2009.
When helping hurts
. Chicago: Moody Publishers

Doherty, G. W. (2009).
From Crisis to Recovery: Strategic Planning for Response, Resilience and Recovery
. Loving Healing Press.

Temporary aid in life or death/crisis situations,
Short term,
Uses outside resources.
Recovery process for restoration of community,
Begins when immediate crisis is over,
Temporary, though longer than relief,
Uses a combination of outside and local resources.
Corbett & Fikkert, (2009)

People and communities work to improve their lives,
Occurs in normal circumstances,
Occurs after recovery from disaster,
Ongoing continuous process,
Uses Local resources.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2000). Training manual for mental health and human services workers in major disasters, second edition. Washington, DC: SAMHSA.
retrieved at: http://www.samhsa.gov/dtac/CCPtoolkit/phases.htm#rec
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