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Immune Response

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Calvin Go

on 5 April 2013

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Transcript of Immune Response

The Immune System 1st LINE OF DEFENSE (nonspecific)
mucous membranes
gastric juice
antimicrobial proteins
symbiotic bacteria Skin
Oily and acidic (pH 3-5) due to sweat glands
perspiration increases salinity and kill certain bacteria
Prevents penetration by pathogens and antigens
Sheds off bacteria on the surface Immune Disorders Antimicrobial proteins
Proteins that are capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth deleterious microorganisms.
found in saliva and tears
ex: lysozyme = breaks down cell wall of bacteria Mucous Membranes
mucous-coated respiratory passages with embedded cilia sweep invaders through wave-like movements Gastric Juice
The gastric juice is composed of hydrochloric acid (maintains a pH of 1.5 to 3.5 in the stomach), pepsin (breaks down proteins), and rennet (separates milk into solids and liquids).

Highly acidic and kills microbes in the stomach. Symbiotic Bacteria

Outcompete other bacteria and germs in the vagina and digestive tract. Phagocytes
White blood cells (leukocytes) that engulf pathogens by phagocytosis.
includes neutrophils and monocytes
Natural Killer cells (NK Cells) Interferons
Substances secreted by neighboring cells that are infected by viruses.

The interferons bind to uninfected cells to stimulate them to produce proteins that prevent the replication of viruses.
Stimulates phagocytosis as well. Inflammatory Response
Produces redness, swelling, heat, and pain in damaged and infected areas.
Histamine (allergy response) secreted by basophils (=white blood cells found in connective tissue)
Vasodilation (dilation of blood vessels) -> due to histamine response
increase blood supply in damaged areas and facillitates white blood cell movement
increase temp, swelling, redness -> not a hospitable environment for pathogens Lymphocytes
WBCs that originate in the bone marrow but chill in lymphatic tissues such as lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen. The major difference between lymphocytes and phagocytes is that lymphocytes attack specific harmful molecules.

There are two types of lymphocytes.
T lymphocyte cells ("T" stands for thymus-derived)
B lymphocyte cells ("B" stands for bursa of Fabricius, an organ in the chicken where these cells were first identified.) Properties of antibodies
are proteins
specific to antigen
5 classes(immunoglobulins) : IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE If your immune system doesn't work properly, results may be SERIOUS ! Disorders include
immune deficiency diseases
autoimmune diseases
CANCER :( Immunoglobulins
IgG = Defends against bacterial cells, viruses, and toxins; activates complement
IgM = Reacts with antigens on some red blood cell membranes after certain blood transfusions; activates complement
IgA = Defends against bacterial cells and viruses
IgD = B cell activation
IgE = Promotes inflammation and allergic reactions IMMUNODEFICIENCY occurs when the immune system is not working properly and your resistance to disease becomes dangerously low!
t and b lymphocytes do not work and your body does not produce enough antibodies Let's take a look at the diseases !! :D SCID-severe combined immunodeficiency
occurs because of a lack of both B and T Lymphocytes- therefore making it impossible to fight infections
DiGeorge syndrome
this is a birth defect in which kids are born without a thymus gland, without the thymus gland there are no T Lymphocytes being produced OH NO !
IgA deficiency
This deficiency occurs when the body does not produce enough of the IgA antibodies and results in that person AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES normally antibodies and white blood cells protect the body from antigens, but here the system can't tell the difference between healthy body cell's and antigens response would be a hypersensitivity reaction : (immune system destroys normal body tissues)

further resulting in destruction of body tissue and abnormal growth in organs, therefore changes in the organ function ! :( autoimmunity affects
blood vessels
connective tissues
endocrine glands (thyroid and pancreas)
red blood cells
skin take a look at the resulting diseases Systematic Lupus Erythematosus
immune system generates auto antibodies against histones
results in:
sensitivity to sunlight, skin rash (butterfly rash-rash over cheeks and bridge of the nose), hair loss, mouth sores, and swollen lymph nodes
depending on what part of the body is effected; this can vary from the brain, central nervous system, heart, digestive tract, lungs, and skin Rheumatoid Arthritis
damage and painful inflammation of cartilage and bone of joints (overtime the joints loose the range of motion and become deformed)
affects joints symmetrically! Grave's Disease
caused by hyperthyroidism :
endocrine system has thyroid gland that releases hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which controls metabolism
-- if the body makes too much thyroid hormones during the endocrine system the result hyperthyroidism which then results in enlargement of the thyroid gland
results in:
breast enlargement in men
muscle weakness
bulging eyeballs
rapid or irregular heartbeat
weight loss
shortness of breath
--this is because metabolism regulates mood, weight, and physical and mental energy levels. With excess thyroid hormones, metabolism is not regulated and these symptoms therefore occur. Multiple Sclerosis
T cells react against mylein sheath cells that surround the nerve cell in the central nervous system. When the nerve cell covering is damaged, nerve signals slow down or stop completely.
once these nerve cells are attacked inflammation occurs, and nerve cells are damaged
these reactions can occur along the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve
results in:
muscle symptoms-muscle spasms, problems moving arms or legs, loss of balance.
bladder symptoms- constipation, difficulty in urinating, urine leakage,
eye symptoms- double vision, uncontrollable rapid eye movements, vision loss.
brain symptoms- memory loss, difficulty reasoning, depression, decreased attention span, hearing loss. System Circulatory



Lymphatic transports materials (nutrients, water, and oxygen) throughout the body. This system acts as the transport for white blood cells and antibodies to fight antigens during the immune system. THIS IS HUGE !! It is most relevant to bring up the circulatory system when discussing the immune system because is transports the responses o f the immune system to fight diseases or other outside substances that infiltrate the body. allergic reactions occur if the body cannot tolerate certain allergens sends, receives, and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. The nerves are connected throughout the body to the brain and these impulses travel from the brain to the spinal cord to the body.This system stimulate defense mechanisms against infections. This system is effected by disorders of the immune system. Such as multiple sclerosis, when nerve sheath cells' outter coating is destroyed. makes up the framework of the body and allows movement for when out muscles contract. Protects internal organs and produces blood cells and stores minerals such as calcium and releases them into the body when they are needed. the skeletal system provides blood cells that the immune system needs as a method of transportation. Immune disorders effect the Skeletal system causing abnormalities in bone structure during rheumatoid arthritis. a network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph from tissues to the bloodstream. The liquid in the lymph system is made of white blood cells used in the immune system to attack pathogens and bacteria. THIS IS EVEN MORE MAJOR TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM ! :) Body Defenses Against Infection 3rd LINE of DEFENSE ( The Immune

Consist of:
B cells
T cells
Cell-mediated response
Humoral response Pathogens

Substances that causes infections.

The maladaptive foreigners include:
protozoa (unicellular eukaryotic organisms)
viruses Cilia Function
Cilia in the lungs sweep away debris and microbes. Cilia Structure
9+2 architecture (nine microtubules with a central pair of microtubules)
made of protein called tubulins Lysozyme Structure
Primary structure: has amino acid chain
Secondary structure: H-bonding
Tertiary strucuture: formation of disulfide bridges between cystine and and sulfur atoms, hydrophobic effect Escherichia coli
One of the many bacteria that live inside the human digestive tract.
These bacteria prevent harmful bacteria from growing and have other benefits such as the production of vitamin K and biotin. Relation to OTHER Body Systems Mammals Taxonomy evolved a complex network of cells and humoral factors termed immune system able to control and eliminate pathogens.
the communication between and regulation of immune cells is carried out by cytokines which arrange the defense against the invaders.
the pathogens are recognized as non-self by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
similar pathogen recognition receptors and signaling pathways activate the immune response in mammals.
the pathogens have to be opsonized and/or ingested and controlled/eliminated by antimicrobial peptides or small effector molecules (reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates). Antimicrobial Biochemicals

Peptides produced by white blood cells that make holes in bacterial cell walls and membranes.

Proteins that latch on to sugars that protrude off of the surface of pathogens. Makes the pathogens larger and facillitates phagocytosis. Complement Proteins
A group of proteins (about 20) that when activaated stimulates inflammation, attracts phagocytes, and enhances phagocytosis 2nd LINE OF DEFENSE (nonspecific)
complement proteins
inflammatory response Monocytes
account for 3% to 9% of the leukocytes
originate in red bone marrow
becomes macrophages which phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and other debris in the tissues
live for several weeks or even a few months
engulf and digest larger particles Neutrophils
account for 54% to 62% of the leukocytes (WBC)
1st white blood cells to arrive at an infection site
phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses
engulf and digest smaller particles Natural Killer cells (NK cells)
Defend against abnormal body cells such as virus-infected cells and cancerous cells (tumors)
secrete perforins that lyse the cell membrane, destroying the infected cell
secrete chemicals that stimulate inflammation 2. White blood cells invade the region. Neutrophils reach the site first. 1. Histamine is released by the wounded
tissue and increases blood supply in
the damaged area. 3. Clotting factors seep into the wound
to prevent the loss of increased blood
in the area. 4. Phagocytes engulf foreing invaders
by phagocytosis and sweep away
debris. 5. Cells divide by mitosis to replace the
injured ones. Steps of the Inflammatory Response Spleen--which contains lymphocytes and white blood cells called macrophages which engulf bacteria and foreign matter from the blood passing through the spleen ((lymphatic system and the immune system)) Monocyte
The nucleus is relatively small, eccentric, and oval or kidney-shaped. The cytoplasm is relatively larger in volume than that in lymphocytes. Brain and Spinal Cord--the brain controls all body funtcions that occur, inorder to relay messages from the brain to the body and vice versa, the spinal cord plays a major role. the spinal cord contains many threadlike nerve cords that branch out to every organ of the body. The brain sends a message through the spinal cord to trigger immune responses and fight foreign material. ((nervous and immune)) The nucleus of a neutrophil consists of of three to five lobes joined together by threads of chromatin. The cytoplasm is replete with miniscule granules. The nucleus may appear elongated or with one or more constrictions. The granules found in the cytoplasm are moderately large. The Immune Response

The immune response is based on the body's ability to distinguish molecules that are part of the body and those that are foreign.

Friendly or Enemy?
The body is able to discern between self cells and nonself cells by unique glycoproteins on the surface of cells called the major histocompatability complex. Antigens
Molecules that can elicit an immune response.
Receptor on lymphocyte cells enable the cells to recognize foreign antigens. T cells
Originate in the bone marrow but mature in the thymus.
T cells constitute 70% to 80% of the circulating lymphocytes
in blood.
T cells have antigen receptors that enable them to recognize molecules displayed by nonself cells. Thymus Gland, Lymph Nodes, Tonsils--major parts of the lymphatic system that drain lymph fluid from all over the body. This lymph fluid enters lymph nodes where microphages fight foreign substances that enter the bloodstream.((lymphatic and immune system)) T Cell Recognition Process
MHC markers on the plasma membrane interpret if the cell is foreign.
If foreign, the T cells prepare to engage the enemy by dividing into two different types of T cells. Cytotoxic T cells (Killer T cells)
T cells bind to the surfaces of antigens,
where they release perforin protein that cuts porelike
openings to penetrate the molecule, which kills the cell. Circulatory System, transports antibodies in the immune system to regulate immune responses. BULGING eyes. thyroid gland (normal)
thyroid gland (enlarged) thyroid gland excessive amount of thyroid hormones this is how a person gets bulging eyes normal nerve with a healthy mylein sheath damaged mylein sheath joints become deformed inflammation of cartilage Symptoms ! histones auto-antibodies WOOHOO WE ARE FREEE TO SPREAD! antigens B cells
mature and originate in the bone marrow
plasma surface contain antibodies (immunoglobulins)
constitute 20% to 30% of circulating lymphocytes Plasma cells
Release antibodies to circulate throughout the body and to bind to antigens.

Plasma cells are antibody factories. A plasma cell may produce and secrete 2,000 antibody molecules per second. Memory Cells
Circulate throughout the body and release antibodies for any subsequent invasion by the same antigen. When B cells encounter antigens that specifically meet their antibodies, they make two different kinds of B cells. 1. Stem cells in bone marrow produce lymphocyte precursors. 2. Some lyphocyte precursors are processed in the thymus to become T cells. 3. Some lymphocyte precursors are processed in the bone marrow to become B cells. 4. Both T cells and B cells are transported through the blood to lymphatic organs, such as the lymph nodes, lymphatic ducts, and spleen. Lymphocyte Origins Antibody Structure Each antibody molecule has 4 chains of amino acids that are linked by pairs of sulfur atoms that are linked by disulfide bonds. Two of these amino acid chains are
identical light chains (L-chains) and two are identical heavy chains (H-chains). One end of each of the heavy and light chains consists of variable sequences of amino acids.

These regions are specialized to fit the shape of a specific antigenmolecule. Constant regions are similiar from molecule to molecule. Constant regions give other properties of the antibody molecule, such as its ability to bond to cellular structures or to combine with certain chemicals. Helper T cells
The helper T cell stimulates the B cell to produce
antibodies that are specific for the present antigen. T cells and the Cell-Mediated Response
T cells produce killer T cells and helper T cells
Helper T cells bind to macrophages.
Helper T cells bind to macrophages that have engulfed the antigen.
Helper T cells produce interleukins(communication chemicals) to stimulate the production of T and B cells. Specialization in lymphoid tissue Bacteria The outside of our body is most likely to get in contact with bacteria
~That is where this defense is operative.
Our skin offers perfect protection:
~No bacteria can penetrate intact skin.
Sweat increases the salt concentration to levels that most bacteria find rather hostile.
Our body raises the temperature to slow down bacterial growth
It needs time such as after 2 weeks specific antibodies are produced, which recognize exactly those bacteria that cause the infection, and with the help of white blood cells they are destroyed.
This is known as ACQUIRED IMMUNITY, which allows many bacteria to make us ill only once in life.
The bacteria do not get a second chance because then the response time is reduced to nearly zero so that means...
Our body remembers the infections it has seen, and the bacteria are killed before they can do harm.
Pathogenic bacteria infect our bodies in order to get food.
They may:
Destroy body cells which are then used as a source of food.
Absorb material directly from body fluids such as blood.
Release harmful substances such as toxins. The cell-mediated response begins when a cell is infected. Once infected, some of the viral protein is broken down by the cell and attached to MHC and represented on the cell's surface. A killer T cell receptor binds to the MHC and activates the killer T cell.
The activated killer T cell makes clones of itself with receptors specific for that antigen. Response begins. These T cells can now encounter and eliminate other cells that are infected by this antigen.
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