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4. Digestive System of Ruminants

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Xinyi Yap

on 7 December 2013

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Transcript of 4. Digestive System of Ruminants

4. Digestive System of Ruminants
What are "Ruminants"?
- Large fermentation vat

- Fermentation of ingested food

- Lined with numerous PAPILLAE

- Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

- No Mucosa and Glands
- Increases surface area of rumen lining
Animals that ruminate
Ruminate = to regurgitate (spit out) and chew undigested food until the feed is thoroughly masticated
Digestion in calves
Changes in Sizes
Abomasum: 60 - 8%
Rumen: 25 - 65%
-Thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelial

-Dental pad

-Haired skin

- Reticulorumen contractions moves ingesta into the omasum through the reticulo-omasal orifice
- Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
- No glands
Muscle fibers oriented in longitudinal, perpendicular and transverse directions
Enters through omasoabomasal orifice from omasum
Final compartment of the stomach but first glandular compartment
true stomach
similar to monogastric stomach
Tough keratinized layer called dental pad
- Increase surface area for nutrient absorption.
- Fold stretches when food enters
- Expands stomach without increased pressure
4 Layers of Stomach Wall
muscular laminae studded with short papillae that lie in sheets resembling a partially open book
2. Squeezes out the water from digestive contents
3. Reduce particle size
1. Increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients and water
4. Absorbs remaining volatile fatty acids
5. Removes bicarbonate ions
Larger & lighter materials
Smaller, & heavier materials
Antagonistic muscle contractions
4 major types of secretory epithelial cells
1. secrete mucus
>>protect the abomasal wall from acid damage, prevent autodigestion=self digestion

2. secrete pepsinogen
>>converted to pepsin to digest protei
Chief cells
produces hydrochloric acid
(pH 2-3)
Secrete hormone gastrins
>>stimulates the release of HCl and pepsinogen
Gastrin cells
1. secrete mucin
>> main constituent of the mucous coating

2. Bicarbonate ions secreted onto surface
>> make mucous coating more alkaline thus neutralizing the hydrochloric acids contacting to some degree
1. secrete mucus
>> protect the abomasal wall from acid damage, prevent autodigestion=self digestion

2. secrete pepsinogen
>>converted to pepsin to digest protein
- Not born with ability to digest grass
- Monogastric
- Milk Diet

If a calf is unable to develop a proper rumen during the transition of milk to grain/corn diet, it may cause serious digestive problems, and will likely experience delayed growth.
- Undeveloped rumen as a part of esophagus
surface epithelium
contain gastric pits
connective tissue
contain blood vessels
moves and mixes stomach contents
connective tissue continuous with surrounding structures
consists of lipids and fats
>>absorb shock
- Honeycomb appearance with muscularis mucosae at the top of its ridges
- •Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with no glands present
• Traps and collects heavy and dense objects consumed by cattles
(e.g. nails, wires, sharp objects)
These objects can penetrate the reticulum wall and into the heart during normal digestive tract contractions; “hardware disease”
- Chemical breakdown of substances
- Anaerobic environment
- 38-42 degree celsius
- pH (around 6.0)
Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs)
Cellulose >>> Carbohydrates >>> VFAs

Main source of energy for cattles
Vitamin B-12
- Important vitamin
- Synthesized by bacteria in rumen and large intestine
- Needed to remove propionate from Rumen
-Metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates
(Propionate >> Glucose)
- Converted from Non-protein-nitrogen (NPN) via Urease
- Ammonia + Ketoacids = amino acids
- Used to synthesis microbial proteins
-Excess ammonia cross the ruminal wall and is transported to the liver. (Ammonia >>> urea)
- Urea can be excreted OR return to the rumen, which is then converted back to ammonia (nitrogen source for bacterial growth)
Fermentation gases (methane)
Gases goes to the top of the rumen above the liquid fraction

Mainly removed by Eructation/belching
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