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Transcript of MONTEGO BAY
THE CARIBBEAN SEA
Amelia Tizzard Nick Tan Lydia Burgess
Montego Bay, Jamaica's second largest city, is located on Jamaica's north western coast  in the parish of Saint James. 
It has transcended its identity as merely the main port of entry into Jamaica to a popular tourist destination. Beaches, markets and historical sites are all prevalent features of the city and its easy accessibility via the cruise ship terminal or airport makes Montego Bay a desirable tourist destination.
Tourist attractions and resorts in Montego Bay provide employment for many locals and over 80% of the parish is reliant on tourism. 
Montego Bay is situated coastally on a narrow plain within a protected bay, separated by North and South Gullies and the Montego, Retirement and Pies Rivers. Steep hills border the CBD to the north, east and south and the ocean lies to the west. The Montego Bay area is in the drainage basin of the Montego River and can be divided into three physical areas. Furthest inland is a dense network of valleys and ridges with branching drainage patterns and elevations. The central portion of the basin is occupied by rugged topography with slopes reaching 1750 feet above sea level. 
Montego Bay plays a vital social and economic role in the success of the country. The demand for the expansion of coastal centers like Montego Bay persists, despite the hazardous nature of these areas. Hurricanes, floods, storm surges, landslides, coastal erosion, droughts and earthquakes are all likely occurrences. Continued development is likely to amplify risks to life and property and these hazards will result in loss of land value, deterioration of coastal road infrastructure, degradation of beaches, disruption of livelihoods and loss of tourism infrastructure. 
TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
The Forma Urbis encapsulates the main shopping district, prominent historical and tourist sites and dense residential areas in close proximity to the CBD. This region stems from the original British and Spanish settlements.
FIGURE GROUND MAP
As made evident in the City Pattern, the housing and physical infrastructure of Montego Bay was not prioritized until the 1960's. 
The streets bordering historical landmarks, popular tourist sites and shopping destinations in the city centre are in a grid formation, suggesting that re-development and new constructions after 1960 aimed to pertain to a structured formation.
Dissimilarly, the outlying figurations are characterized by crowded irregular settlements to the north and south-east  and sparse industrial and residential areas to the south, north-east and east.
The physical and social development of Montego Bay was not addressed until the late 1960's. Throughout Montego Bay, the land is owned by several wealthy families and this has contributed directly to the layout, expansion and evolution of the city. Unlike most planned cities, the upper class live on the outskirts (10-15 minutes out) of the city, and the lower class live in close proximity to the urban centre. 
The city pattern spreads north, following the coastline and west to the bordering hills, from the Montego Free Port. The port provides access by sea to the city, and exportation of primary agricultural goods such as sugarcane, coffee, citrus fruits, bananas and yams. 
As tourism is the principal industry in Montego Bay, many of the tourist attractions and resorts rely on their proximity to the water, accounting for the density surrounding the node in the CBD.
Montego Bay is the main port of entry into Jamaica, accessible by road, air or sea. The cruise ship terminal at the Montego Bay Free Port and Montego Bay Sangster International Airport (not pictured) are the primary entry points in Jamaica. Transport within Montego Bay is chiefly via taxi and foot. Other methods include, shuttle buses and municipal buses.  The Montego Bay train station was built in 1894 and closed in 1992. 
BEHIND A CLUSTER OF STALLS
From its centre, containing primarily commercial and historical areas, the city predominantly expands to the north and east. Between the central commercial district and the Port, located approximately 3km south of the CBD, lies the industrial sector, located along the the main road transport route and rail line (disused). The outlying settlements to the north east, east and south east are largely residential with larger land parcels. North of the CBD, an informal settlement is evident with the area congested with small structures.
Commercial, industrial and residential sectors are aggregated in large areas, in close proximity to their associated demands. Affluent residences in low density areas border the hills surrounding Montego Bay and closer to the industrial and commercial areas, medium to high density, as well as informal settlements, are evident.
By applying Kevin Lynch's theories regarding the organisation of
an urban environment, Montego Bay can be further understood. These theories are explored in his text,
The Image of the City
The collective of the stalls (displayed) is a
, known as the Montego Bay Craft Market. The Markets play an important role in the tourism
, as tourism is the main source of income for Montego Bay.
The Montego Bay Civic Centre and adjoining Sam Sharpe Square are both
in the main commercial and tourist
in Montego Bay. The grid pattern of Montego Bay's CBD allows for easy access to
URBAN SECTION PATH
1538 - ARCHITECTURE
Permanent buildings began construction made from local materials. They varied in construction between rudimentary framed mud buildings to more elaborate brick structures. Religious buildings were constructed from stone. 
Hans Sloan wrote about the durability of Spanish buildings, surviving for many years after their deportation, even through earthquakes.
Edward Long remarked upon the similarity of the British buildings to the Spanish. He wrote that "the English in general have copied the iconography of the Spanish houses with great uniformity..."
It is not evident today which structures are still standing from the Spanish period are still intact. Some remaining buildings may be of Spanish origin with English alterations. 
1705 - ARCHITECTURE
1655 - 1720: EARLY ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE
1720 - ARCHITECTURE
1720-1760 GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE
After a hurricane in 1712, Georgian architecture began to emerge in Jamaica out of the reconstruction.
Brick was commonly used in residential construction and stone for public buildings.
In Jamaica, the Doric order was commonly used on the portico, with the front facade being the main point of attention. 
1760 - ARCHITECTURE
1760 - 1790: TRANSITIONAL ARCHITECTURE
Transitional Architecture in this period refers to the development of a local interpretation of Georgian Architecture.
Shading devices were added to the exterior of traditional architecture.
Modern houses began to appear with more and more brick and stone structures replacing those of mud and thatch.
This period signified the beginning of a conscious effort by settlers to construct formal buildings on a wider scale. 
1790 - ARCHITECTURE
1790 - 1834: JAMAICAN-GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE
The local modification of Georgian designs on dwellings had become institutionalized as the Jamaican vernacular.
This style was expressed by: a steeper roof pitch, integrated piazzas, and raised ground floor levels, all fully incorporated into the overall design of these buildings on the island. No longer did the localizing elements appear to be tacked-on to a Georgian core. 
Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City, 1960
Sam Sharpe Square. 2009. Accessed April 14, 2014. http://www.jamaicatravelandculture.com/destinations/st_james/montego_bay/sam_sharpe_square.htm
 Harbour Street. 2014. Accessed April 14, 2014. http://www.tripadvisor.com.au/Attraction_Review-g147311-d150371-Reviews-Harbour_Street-Montego_Bay_Saint_James_Parish_Jamaica.html
 History of the Jamaican Customs Agency. 2014. Accessed April 20, 2014. http://www.jacustoms.gov.jm/home_template.php?page=aboutus
 Introducing Montego Bay. 2014. Accessed April 24, 2014. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/jamaica/montego-bay
Single storey dwellings in Montego Bay are primarily residential. These dwellings consist of small frame residences, beach dwellings, and informal settlements. 
Informal settlements are characterized by primitive dwellings in congested communities. The city's irregular settlements have poor sanitation and waste disposal.  These unplanned settlements are still expanding and becoming congested. They lack proper infrastructure such as roads, street lights and other amenities. 
There are 71 informal settlements in Montego Bay, and these form a large percentage of urban residents.  Environmental degradation, public health issues, increased exposure to natural and man made hazards and criminal activity are all consequences as a result of unplanned settlements. 
Other single storey dwellings include markets, roadside shops, industrial buildings and historical buildings. 
Double storey dwellings consist of residential, commercial and public typologies. Residences are predominantly constructed by the wealthy for holiday homes.
Triple storey dwellings are also a combination of residential, commercial and public buildings. Shopping centres, historical sites, hotels and residences occur as three storey typologies within Montego Bay.
SINGLE STOREY INFORMAL DWELLING
SINGLE STOREY INFORMAL DWELLING
SINGLE STOREY SMALL FRAME DWELLING
SINGLE STOREY SMALL FRAME DWELLING
DOUBLE STOREY RESIDENCE
THREE STOREY RESIDENCE
, SAINT JAMES PARISH, JAMAICA
FOUNTAIN IN SAM SHARPE SQUARE
The cast iron fountain marks the centre of Sam Sharpe Square, and is a very important part of Jamaica’s history. The Cobblestone square is in memory of Sam Sharpe, the local minister who was hung for his unwanted involvement in the abolition of slavery in Jamaica. 
The colourful open air craft markets, situated on Harbour street, in downtown Montego Bay, are of rich cultural significance. Selling handcrafted jewellery, shirts and other goods to tourists and locals, provides income to the vendors. 
Market Street joins Same Sharpe Square to the Craft Markets. This street is a primary path for tourists throughout the CBD. 
The Montego Bay Tax Office is situated 100m from the waterline of the Caribbean Sea. Back in 1868, the building was used to collect revenue on imports from the nearby port. Now, in 2014, it is used “To facilitate trade, protect the (our) borders and optimise revenue collection”. 
THE CARIBBEAN SEA
The Caribbean Sea completely surrounds Jamaica, thus sharing the coastline with Montego Bay. The beautiful coastline intrigues wealthy tourists from around the globe to the many lush resorts in Montego Bay. The Caribbean Sea is also of great use to transport goods to and from Jamaica.