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Theories For Integration Models

Learning theories as bases of integration models

Nawal Nordin

on 10 July 2013

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Transcript of Theories For Integration Models

Theories for Integration Models
Non-Directed Models ( Constructivism )
Social Activism Theory
Non-Directed Models ( Constructivism )
Discovery Learning
Directed Models (Objectivist)
Non-Directed Models ( Constructivism )
- Behaviorist (Skinner)
- Information Processing
- Cognitivist (Gagne)
- Instructional System Design (ISD)
Directed Models
Non-Directed Models
- Social Activism (John
- Scaffolding Theory (Vygotsky)
- Discovery Learning (Bruner)
- Child Development (Piaget)
- Multiple Intelligence
Behaviorist Theory
- B. F. Skinner
- learning as a stimulus-response
- can be used to strengthen, weaken or teach behavior through these :
Information-Processing Theory
- information is processed and stored in three stages.
- It is suggested that human beings process information in the same way a computer does.
- It developed from a branch of cognitive psychology.
Information Processing has served Technology Integration by :
• guiding the development of artificial intelligence applications
• attracting information
• helping students encode and store new information into long term memory using drill and practice software.
Drill and Practice :
The acquisition of knowledge through repetitive practice for example the memorization of spelling. They are based on question and answer interaction giving the learner feedback.
Tutorial Software :
•Function like a teacher or Text book to explain concepts or information to learners.
•Usually self contained unit, rather than supplementary material.
Atkinson and Shiffrin Model
Cognitive-behaviorist Theory
Gagné used the theoretical work of behavioral and information processing theorists to develop practical instructional strategies that can be used by teachers for directed instruction.
Directed Models (Objectivist)
Directed Models (Objectivist)
System Theory and Instructional System Design (ISD)
- Also known as systems Approach to Training (SAT)
or Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, Evaluate (ADDIE)
- Managing the complexity of teaching
ISD Process :
1. Analyze
2. Design
3. Develop
4. Implement
5. Evaluate
- The curriculum should be fashioned to complement the student's interests.
- Education for social engineering, rather than purely educating students.
- Inquiry-based learning.
- This hands-on collaborative learning approach.
Implications for Technology Integration:
* The use of the Internet and communication technologies as a tool for
- research and learning
- communication with each other, peers, other students, teachers and if fact with anyone.
- feedback to teachers
- Using technology to foster cooperative learning
Scaffolding Theory
- Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age.
- Full cognitive development requires social interaction
Implications for Technology Integration
* The use of the Internet and communication technologies as a tool for
- research and learning
- communication with each other, peers, other students, teachers and if fact with anyone.
- Using technology to foster cooperative learning
- Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn (readiness).
- Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the
student (spiral organization).
- Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given).
Implications for Technology Integration:
- Using technology for the student to discover principles for themselves.
Child Development Theory
Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cognitive development.
- Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation (i.e., assimilation and accommodation).
- Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of given age; avoid asking students to perform tasks that are beyond their current cognitive capabilities.
- Use teaching methods that actively involve students and present challenges.
Implications for Technology Integration
- Using technology for the student appropriate for the level of intellectual development.
Multiple Intelligence
- Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.
- Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence.
- Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
- Implications for Technology Integration:
> Using technology for the student to satisfy individual differences.
> Good technology tools for visual learners.
> Using technology for group work
- Robert Gagne
- Providing condition for learning
- Events of instruction
- John Dewey
- Learning as a social experience
- Lev Vygotsky
- Learning as a cognitive building process
- Jean Piaget
- Stages of development
- Jerome Bruner
- Instructional support for child development
- Role of intelligence in learning
- Howard Gardner
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