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International Humanitarian Law

IHL Action Campaign

Mianna Armstrong

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of International Humanitarian Law

4 Principles of IHL Principle of Proportionality Principle of Military Necessity Principle of Unnecessary Suffering Principle of Distinction Protects Prisoners of War requiring that they are treated humanely, adequately housed, and receive sufficient food, clothing and medical care
Other provisions include guidelines on labor, discipline, recreation and criminal trial
POW are only required to provide their captors with their name, rank, date of birth, and military service #
POW names are sent to the ICRC and they are allowed to correspond with their families and receive relief packages

Members of the armed forces
Volunteer militia (ie. resistance movements)
Civilians accompanying the armed forces 3rd Geneva Convention Protects soldiers who are hors de combat (out of the battle)

Wounded and sick soldiers
Medical personnel, facilities and equipment
Wounded and sick civilian support personnel who accompany the armed forces
Military Chaplains
Civilians who spontaneously take up arms to repel an invasion 1st Geneva Convention A set of rules that seeks for humanitarian reasons to limit the effects of armed conflict

IHL protects persons who are not or no longer participating in hostilities
It also restricts the means and methods of warfare

Known as the “Law of War” and “Law of Armed Conflict” What is IHL? 4th Geneva Convention 2nd Geneva Convention All cases of declared war, or any conflict between nations

When a nation is partially or totally occupied by soldiers of another nation
Even when there is no armed resistance to that occupation When does IHL apply?
Red Cross Red Crescent Global Network The Geneva Conventions IHL
Four conventions that provide specific rules to safeguard:
Combatants or members of the armed forces who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked
Prisoners of War (POW)
Medical Personnel
Military Chaplains
Civilian Support Workers of the Military Importance of distinguishing between legitimate and non-legitimate military targets. Legitimate Armored Tank Soldiers Aiming Their Guns Non-Legitimate Targets Child Soldiers Medical Tent or Truck displaying the Red Cross Assessment of the planned attack to evaluate the potential of loss of civilian lives, damage to civilian objects, or a combination of both. If the suffering is deemed greater than the advantage it is considered an illegal attack. An assessment of an attack to determine if the weapons used would cause an undesirable outcome leading the incidental loss of civilian lives, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination of these that is deemed excessive in relation to the military advantage gained is prohibited. The military necessity principle means that force can only be used if there is a militarily necessary reason (i.e. submission of the enemy forces / providing a definite military advantage), for attacking. Questions? Prisoners of War 1 2 3
Armed forces members who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked

- Adrift for any reason including forced to land at sea, or to parachute from a damaged aircraft Hospital ships and medical personnel
Hospital ships cannot be attacked or captured and cannot be used for any military purpose Protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked sailors at sea 4 Civilians Murder Civilians in areas of armed conflict and occupied territories are protected from:
Torture or
brutality Discrimination (race, nationality,
religion, political) Sailors Soldiers After witnessing a bloody battle between French and Austrian armies in Sloferino, Italy in 1859, Swiss business man, Henry Dunant, called for an international conference to draft the Geneva Conventions. In 1863, a Committee of Five was formed in Geneva to implement his recommendations. The Committee was the forerunner of what is now the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
The Geneva Conventions of August 12th, 1949 have been adopted by all nations of the world Three additional Protocols were established, two in 1977 and a third in 2005. INTERNATIONAL
LAW International Committee of the Red Cross Inhumane treatment
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