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Observing the Solar System

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dayle westhora

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Observing the Solar System

Wandering Stars
When the ancient Greeks watched the stars move across the sky, they noticed that the patterns of most of the stars didn't change.

As they observed the sky more carefully, the Greeks noticed something surprising...
Five points of light seemed to wander among the stars.
The Greeks called these stars...PLANETS
Greek Ideas:
Geocentric
= Where Earth is at the center of the universe and all planets and stars revolve around Earth.

1. The universe is perfect and unchangeable

2. Earth is stationary in the center of the universe

3. In AD 140, Ptolemy explained the planet motions & how they revolved around Earth.
Observing the Solar System
In AD 140, The Greek astronomer Ptolemy explained the motion of the planets in another way...
Earth is at the center of the system of planets - Geocentric System
The moon, Mercury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn
revolve
around Earth.
Ptolemy's explanation:
the planets move on little circles that move on bigger circles
this explained why the planets seem to move at different speeds and even backwards
Nicolaus Copernicus
1. Lived in Poland - 1473-1543
2.
Heliocentric
- Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
a. No center of all circles
b. Earth is not at center of the universe
c. All spheres revolve around the Sun
d. Earth is tiny compared to the whole universe
e. Stars do not move; the Earth does
f. Earth orbits the Sun & rotates on an axis
g. Other planets move in an organized fashion
Galileo Galilei
1. Lived in Italy - 1564-1642
2. Supported the Heliocentric model
3. Constructed and marketed telescopes
4. Discovered 4 moons of Jupiter
5. Discovered the rings of Saturn
6. Observed sunspots
Galileo's Discoveries:
1. Four moons revolving around Jupiter--> this observation clarified that NOT everything revolves around the Earth
2. Venus goes through phases similar to Earth's moon...this would only happen if Venus revolved around the Sun.
Because of Galileo's beliefs...he faced many persecutions. In fact, he was charged with going against the Roman Catholic church and sentenced to house arrest the rest of his life.
Sir Isaac Newton
1. An English Scientist
2. Lived Dec. 25, 1642 - Mar 20, 1727
3. Discovered the Law of Gravity
4. Helped cement the idea of planetary motion
5. Removed doubts of Heliocentrism
6. Improved upon the first telescope - and built new types of telescopes
7. Created the Three Laws of Motion
a. Law of Inertia
b. Law of Acceleration/mass
c. Law of Action/Reaction
Newton's Laws of Motion
1. Inertia = an object at rest stays at rest; an object will move unless acted upon
2. Applied Force = the rate of change is the same as its momentum
3. Action/Reaction = For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's Telescope
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