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Copy of THE TRIAL AND MARTYRDOM OF JOSE RIZAL
Transcript of Copy of THE TRIAL AND MARTYRDOM OF JOSE RIZAL
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Rizal's warm friend who wrote him about and epidemic of yellow fever in Cuba and the pathetic lack of doctors to attend the sick.
Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt
Governor General Blanco
Jose Rizal left Dapitan on the midnight of
July 31, 1996
Jose Rizal departed for Barcelona on board the
Isla de Panay
When Isla de Panay reaches Suez,a cable awaited it, ordering the immediate arrest of Jose Rizal and his return to Manila for trial.
November 3,1893, Rizal reached Manila and was locked in fort Santiago.
Testimonial evidences, were comprised of oral proofs provided by
Aguedo del Rosario
November 20, 1896
the preliminary investigation on Rizal began.
During the five-day investigation, Rizal was informed of the charges against him before Judge Advocate Colonel Francisco Olive.
He was put under interrogation without the benefit of knowing who testified against him.
Presented before him were to kinds of evidences- documentary and testimonial.
Captain Rafael Dominguez
-the Judge Advocate assigned with the task of deciding what corresponding action should be done.
Don Nicolas de la Pena
- The Judge Advocate General, for an opinion.
the brother of Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrande, who worled as Rizal's personal body guard in Calamba 1887.
Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrande
Charges Against Jose Rizal
who had the authority to command that the case be court martialed.
Governor Camilo de Polavieja
When asked regarding his sentiments or reaction on the charges, Rizal replied that:
He does not question the jurisdiction of the court.
He has nothing to amend except that during his exile in Dapitan in 1892, he had not dealt in political matters;
He has nothing to admit on the charges against him.
He had nothing to admit on the declarations of the witnesses, he had not met noe knew,against him.
Rizal wrote the controversial Manifesto Addressed to his countrymen.
Pena's reccomendatios were as follows:
1.Rizal must be immediately sent to trial
2. He must be held in prison under necessary security
3.His propoerties must be issued with order of attachment, and as indemnity, Rizal had to pay one million pesos
4. instead of a civilian lawyer, only an army officer is allowed to defend Rizal.
8 o'clock in the morning, the court-martial of Rizal commenced.
Present at the courtroom were Jose Rizal, the six other officers in uniform (Capt. Rizardo Munoz Arias, Capt. Manuel Reguera, Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio, Capt. Braulio Rodriguez Nunez, Capt Manuel Diaz Escribano, and Capt. fernando Perez Rodriguez), Lt. Taviel de Andrande, Judge Advocate Capt. Rafael Domiguez, Lt. de Alcocer and a number of spectators, including Josephine Bracken.
The three crimes accused to him were rebellion, sedition and illegal association.
- The penalty for the first two being life imprisonment to death, while the last, correctional imprisonment and a charge of 325 tp 3,250 pasetas.
According to Rizal, there are twelve points to prove his innocence:
1. as testified by Pio Valenzuela, Rizal was against rebellion
2. he had not written a letter addressed to the Katipunan comprising revolutionary elements
3. without his knowledge, his name was used by the Katipunan; if he really was guilty, he could have escaped while he was in Singapore.
4. if he was guilty, he should have left the country while in exile; he shoudn't have built a home, bought a parcel of land or established a hispital in Dapitan.
5. if he was really the leader of the revolution, the revolutionists should have consulted him.
6. he did not deny thet he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga Filipina, but to make things clear, the organization was a civic association, not a revolutionary society.
7. after the first meeting of La Liga Filipina, the association banished because if his exile in Dapitan, thus, did not last long.
8. if the La Liga wa reorganized nine months later, he had no idea about it.
9. if th La Liga had a revplutionary purpose, then Katipunan should not have been organized.
10. if the Spanish authorities found his letters having bitter atmosphere, it was because in 1890 his family was being persecuted resulting to their dispossession of properties and deportation of all his brothers-in-law.
11. he lived an exemplary life in Dapitan- the polotico military commanders and missionary priests in the province could atleast to that.
12. if according to witnesses the speech he delivered at Doroteo Ongjunco's house had inspired the revolution, then he want to confront these persons. if he really was the revolution, then why did the Katipunan sent an unfamiliar emissary to him in Dapitan? it is so because all his friends were aware that he never advocate violence.
After a short delliberation, he was sentenced to be shot in musketry until death at 7 o'clock in the morning of December 30, 1896 at Bagumbayan.
Martyrdom at Bagumbayan
December 29, 1896
at 6 o'clock in the morning Captain Rafael Dominguez read before him the official notice of his execution.
He had a lot of visitors, ariving one or two after the other:
Fr. Miguel Saderra Mata- the Rector of the Ateneo Municupal.
Fr. Luis Viza- came with Fr. Mata; the priest to whom Rizal asked for the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus which he made during his stay in Ateneo.
Fr, Antonio Rosell- another friend of Rizal who gladly eaten a fine breakfast with him.
Lt. Taviel de Andrande- Rizal extended his appreciation for Andrande's services as his denfense counsel.
Fr. Federico Faura- had prophesied earlier rather comically that Rizal would lose his head for writing the Noli Me Tangere,and the latter " congratulated" the priest for being right.
Fr. Jose Villaclara - Rizal's former teacher in Ateneo.
Fr. Vicente Balaguer - accompanied Fr. Villaclara; ate lunch with him.
Santiago Mataix - contributor in the El Heraldo de Madrid.
Teodor Alonzi- Rizal knelt before his beloved mother, begging for forgiveness and understanding; the mother and son were separated by the strong grip of the prison guard.
Trinidad- arrived when Teodor left the chapel; to her, Rizal handed down an alcohol cooking stove and whispered that something was inside( turned out to be his last piece, the Mi Ultimo Adios).
Gaspar Castano= hiscal of the Royal Audiencia.
Alcohol Lamp ( food warmer) that concealed Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios
Mi Ultimo Adios
December 30, 1896
3:30 in the morning, Fr. Balaguer lead a mass for Rizal.
At 5:00 AM, he ate his last breakfast and autographed some memorabilia including religious pictures and books which will be passed on to his mother,and her sister,Trinidad.
Accompanied by his sister Narcisa, Josephine Bracken arrived and as requested by Rizal, the couple was canonically blessed as husband and wife by Fr. Balaguer.
Rizal gave Josephine the Imitacion de Cristo as a wedding gift.
6:30am, Rizal's march to Bagumbayan commenced
Cuarte de Espana
a military building, with a court composed of seven military officers headed by Lt. Col. Jose Togore Arjona.
Imitacion de Cristo
Actual picture of the Execution of Jose Rizal
Early Grave (Note R.P.J.)
Rizal's largest monument now stands on the Luneta a hundred meters from where he fell. Under the obelisk of that monument is his dust.