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Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music

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by

Jordan Fillingham

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music

450
1450
1759
0
1600
Chapter 17: Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music
Chapter 17: Vocabulary
plainsong
parallel organum
score
neumes
solmization
renaissance
motets
madirgals
word painting
Baroque Period
terraced dynamics
continuo
fugue
concerto
17. The Foundations of Western Classical Music
Medieval 450-1450
Renaissance 1450-1700
Baroque 1600-1759
Classical 1750-1825
Romantic 1825-1900
Modern 1900-present
Medieval Church Music
Church music (sacred music) became the foundation of Western classical music.
Advancements in Medieval Music
Score:
written notation

Neumes:
markings over or under the text to signal pitch changes
The Renaissance
Renaissance = "rebirth" and revival of human creativity
The Early Baroque Period
Baroque Period: Italian for "Pearl". Ornamented, elaborate, bizarre....
THE LATE BAROQUE PERIOD
The Roots of Classical Music
- Classical music roots can be traced to ancient Greece and Rome
- Greek philosophers: Pythagoras and Aristoxenus
**Chief contributions to music, Greeks established the octave as the basic mathematical unit in music**
plainsong: music with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice or unison choir
parallel organum: compositional method in which two voice parts sing in the same melody, one a perfect fourth or fifth higher than the other
"Hymn to St. John the Baptist"

a Gregorian Chant, named after Pope Gregory-leader of the church from 590-604
Technical Breakthroughs in Music
Guido of Arezzo
created the first system of staff notation. Four line staff.
Solmization
solmization: a method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale to facilitate memorization
The Rise of Secular Music
secular = nonreligious music, singing and dancing social activities
"Estampie"; a medieval dance
troubadors- poet musicians, traveled widely entertaining the feudal lords. Their songs told the news and other stories
"Prendes i Garde" (Be on your Guard)
by Guillame d'Amiens
Renaissance Music
Motets - polyphonic choral composition based on sacred text
Madrigals- non religious vocal works in several parts
"La Bourree" from Terpsichore by Michael Praetorius
Word Painting
Word painting; musical device that portrays the meaning of the words of the text.
"As Vesta Was Descending" by Thomas Weelkes
As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending,
She spied a maiden Queen the same ascending,
Attended on by all the shepherds' swain,
To whom Diana's darlings came running down amain,
First two by two, then three by three together,
Leaving their goddess all alone hasted thither;
And mingling with the shepherds of her train,
With mirthful tunes her presence entertain.

Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
Long live fair Oriana!
Baroque Music
terraced dynamics; layered dynamics levels within a composition
The Beginnings of Opera
continuo: an accompaniment setting of harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola reinforcing the bass line
Orfeo
"Tu se' morta" (You are Dead) by Claudio Monteverdi
Sacred Music of the Renaissance
"Kryie" from Pope Marcellus Mass by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Bach's Fugue
derived from the German word meaning "chase"
"Fugue No. 16 in G Minor"
by Johann Sebastian Bach
The Development of Functional Harmony
"Treatise on Harmony" by Jean-Philippe Rameau. Codified rules of harmonization.
Composers begin to think in terms of chords and harmony, not just melodies
The Concerto
concerto: solo parts alternated with a group of instruments.
"The Four Seasons, Spring"
by Antonio Vivaldi
fugue: a rich polyphonic composition consisting of a series of successive melody imitations.
composers continue to use counterpoint, multilayer interweaving melodic threads, imitation and staggered entrances
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