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Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music
Transcript of Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music
Chapter 17: Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque Music
Chapter 17: Vocabulary
17. The Foundations of Western Classical Music
Medieval Church Music
Church music (sacred music) became the foundation of Western classical music.
Advancements in Medieval Music
markings over or under the text to signal pitch changes
Renaissance = "rebirth" and revival of human creativity
The Early Baroque Period
Baroque Period: Italian for "Pearl". Ornamented, elaborate, bizarre....
THE LATE BAROQUE PERIOD
The Roots of Classical Music
- Classical music roots can be traced to ancient Greece and Rome
- Greek philosophers: Pythagoras and Aristoxenus
**Chief contributions to music, Greeks established the octave as the basic mathematical unit in music**
plainsong: music with no strict meter or accompaniment, sung by a single voice or unison choir
parallel organum: compositional method in which two voice parts sing in the same melody, one a perfect fourth or fifth higher than the other
"Hymn to St. John the Baptist"
a Gregorian Chant, named after Pope Gregory-leader of the church from 590-604
Technical Breakthroughs in Music
Guido of Arezzo
created the first system of staff notation. Four line staff.
solmization: a method of assigning a syllabic name to each tone of the scale to facilitate memorization
The Rise of Secular Music
secular = nonreligious music, singing and dancing social activities
"Estampie"; a medieval dance
troubadors- poet musicians, traveled widely entertaining the feudal lords. Their songs told the news and other stories
"Prendes i Garde" (Be on your Guard)
by Guillame d'Amiens
Motets - polyphonic choral composition based on sacred text
Madrigals- non religious vocal works in several parts
"La Bourree" from Terpsichore by Michael Praetorius
Word painting; musical device that portrays the meaning of the words of the text.
"As Vesta Was Descending" by Thomas Weelkes
As Vesta was from Latmos hill descending,
She spied a maiden Queen the same ascending,
Attended on by all the shepherds' swain,
To whom Diana's darlings came running down amain,
First two by two, then three by three together,
Leaving their goddess all alone hasted thither;
And mingling with the shepherds of her train,
With mirthful tunes her presence entertain.
Then sang the shepherds and nymphs of Diana,
Long live fair Oriana!
terraced dynamics; layered dynamics levels within a composition
The Beginnings of Opera
continuo: an accompaniment setting of harpsichord sounding the chords and a viola reinforcing the bass line
"Tu se' morta" (You are Dead) by Claudio Monteverdi
Sacred Music of the Renaissance
"Kryie" from Pope Marcellus Mass by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
derived from the German word meaning "chase"
"Fugue No. 16 in G Minor"
by Johann Sebastian Bach
The Development of Functional Harmony
"Treatise on Harmony" by Jean-Philippe Rameau. Codified rules of harmonization.
Composers begin to think in terms of chords and harmony, not just melodies
concerto: solo parts alternated with a group of instruments.
"The Four Seasons, Spring"
by Antonio Vivaldi
fugue: a rich polyphonic composition consisting of a series of successive melody imitations.
composers continue to use counterpoint, multilayer interweaving melodic threads, imitation and staggered entrances