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Online Learning

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Moussa Mara

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of Online Learning

Auditory Learning
Verbal Learning
Kinesthetic Learning
Visual Learning

In this presentation we will discuss learning styles in reference to online learning. An individual will often have a preferred learning style, and in this Prezi we will provide an insight into five of the different learning styles. We will identify and discuss the benefits and concepts of each style. Upon knowing a student’s preferred learning style, teaching methods can be adjusted to suit, and can often lead to enhanced results within online learning situations. If you are unaware of which learning style best suits you, this presentation may provide a clearer picture into what skills you can bring to your study and how to identify your preferred learning style.
Introduction to Online Learning Skills

Verbal or linguistic learning style is involved in the use of words and language. It's primary learning focus is on speech, reading, writing and listening. It is the most recognizable and utilized style in modern teaching institutions.
Academic literature often relates the verbal-linguistic learning style to Harvard professor Howard Gardner’s theories of multiple intelligences, and specifically to ‘linguistic intelligence’. An article by Lynn Helding states that linguistic intelligence is possessed by all people, providing they can speak, read and write a language (Helding, 2009, p.194 ). She cites Howard Gardner who uses the ‘poet’ as the ‘embodiment of linguistic intelligence’. To further illustrate the type of linguistic learners targeted by verbal-linguistic learning styles, he lists actors, orators and politicians (ibid).
Methods/Concepts -
An advantage of this style of learning is that it benefits those especially gifted with linguistic intelligence.
An important observation is that the verbal-linguistic style of learning has been prominent throughout the history of academia. Jennifer Nolan in her 2005 article explains that people with a gift for verbal intelligence and advocates of the complementary learning style use language to enable them to memorize information. They also use this advantage to ‘explain and persuade’ (Nolan, 2005, p.14). It is therefore no surprise that many tend to be teachers. As well as being apt at explaining, teachers use the verbal-linguistic style to ‘analyse language’ and ‘create better understanding’ of words (ibid).

Case Study:
One would not have to look far to find a case study of online verbal linguistic learning. Swinburne University Online undergraduate program can be used as an example. As the primary learning will involve the use of words, language, oral and auditory input, its access to online global databases substantiates the program as an example of the learning style in an online setting.

A concept of learning styles was developed by Neil Fleming in 1987 (Fleming, 1987). Fleming Introduced the VARK's Model to help students and others learn more about their individual learning preferences. Identifying the style of learning that best suits an individual, will assist in online study, making a positive foundation to individuals, education and end results.
The internet assists auditory learners to comprehend and retain information from a wide range of online resources such as, lectures, webinars, live recordings, oral presentations, music and slide show presentations. Online auditory learning caters for everyone including children and people with an impairment.

Case study:
Ricki Linksman is the founder director of national reading diagnostics institute and keys learning (1993). A program called "Keys to Reading Success" contains a simple test called the "Superlinks" learning style test and brain style assessment. Parents can test their children to find out their specific learning style and get a detailed report on how a child learns or studies. This program's mission is to gain insight in regards to motivating children to achieve positive academic learning and homework according to their individual learning styles .


Cherry, K. (2015). VARK Learning Styles, About Education. Retrieved from

Ricki Linksman's Reading Instructions/ The largest Reading Instruction Site covering all 4 Learning styles (1993-2014). Retrieved from

Ricki Linksman- Founder/director Keys Learning and Nat'l Reading Diagnostics Institute and Keys to learning Success retrieved from

Vygotsky, The educational Theory of Lev Vygotsky: an analysis, researched and written by: M.Dahma, K. Geonnotti, D. Passalacqua, J.N. Schilk, A. Wetzel, and M. Zulkowsky
retrieved 8th September 2015 from www.aiz.vic.edu.au/.../Article-The-Educational-Theory-of-Lev-Vygotsk...

Modeling Process:
Attention: in order to learn you need to be paying attention
Retention: Remembering what you paid attention to
Reproduction: Perform the behavior you observed
Motivation: Reinforcement and Punishment
Social Learning
Case study:

In order to test the hypothesis that reinforcement administered to a model influence the performance but not the acquisition of matching responses, groups of children observe an aggressive film mediated model either rewarded, punished, or left without consequences. A post exposure test revealed that response consequences to the model had produced differential amounts of imitative behavior (Bobo Doll Experiment from Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961))
Imitating Children

Social learning theory is the view that people learn by observing and modeling the behaviors of others and its consequences and modify their own behavior accordingly Albert Bandura (1960). Social constructivism was developed by post-revolutionary Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1978, 57).


Auditory learners take in information best by their sense of hearing, involving music and sound effects. They can also learn by reading, by listening to someone present information in the way of pubic speaking and by being allowed to discuss the topic and ask questions in a social constructivism environment (Vygotsky, 1962). Being an auditory learner in regards to online learning has its advantages, as an online learner requires auditory skills.
Visual learning can be defined as having a preference for the use of images, pictures and colours as the method for learning. The visual learning style may also include reading, with textbooks and class notes being beneficial to the student (Rolfe, 2012).
Constructivist learning posits that first-hand experiences of success increase the feelings of competence and confidence to learn (Prawat & Floden, 1994). As the format for online visual learning can be tailored to suit individual preferences (Kolloffel, 2011), students are able to engage in constructivist learning through their particular learning style.


The visual learner may prefer to work alone, rather than study groups. They may also prefer to work in a quiet room. With regards to this, a benefit of online visual learning is that it enables the student to collaborate with others, from their preferred study space (Rolfe, 2012).

Case study:
Examples of where visual learning occurs can be found within most classrooms. Overtime, traditional web-based learning has been modified to reflect individual learning style preferences (Ozyurt & Ozyurt, 2015). As discussed by William D. Beeland (n.d.), the use of interactive whiteboards within classrooms has shown to enhance the students' level of engagement.

Kinesthetic learning focuses on movement and physically active learning. This can incorporate games, sculpture, dance and performance (Morgan, 2015). For students who have one strongly preferred learning style, kinesthetic is the most common preference.

Case Study:

Some things can only be learnt by being actively involved in their process. No matter how many books a student reads about ice skating, they will still fall over until they physically learn to hold their balance on the blades. For some students, kinesthetic learning is a release of energy that would otherwise cause restlessness while being confined to a chair listening to a lecture or group discussion.

A case where online learning is effectively engaging kinesthetic learners is the website Cram.com.
This website allows students to create their own online flashcards. The act of creating flashcards is an interactive process which engages kinesthetic learners. Creating their own materials instead of simply looking at prepared materials will assist with their retention and understanding of the target learning outcomes. The student can then interact with their flashcards and use them as they would for physical cards. The site has a further advantage of allowing students from across the globe to share and interact with one another’s creations.


Methods/ Concepts:

There are three core concepts at the heart of social learning theory. First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the notion that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior (Bandurah's Concepts).

Asynchronous Conversation: New technologies allow the course of learning to expand in many ways.
Confidence Through Collaboration: Many learners simply enjoy helping their peers with their problems, explaining difficult subjects to others and so it makes the process of learning quite fun
Crowdsourcing Content: Another aspect of digital learning is the ability to browse through a list of questions filtered by subjects, source, platform, topics, tone, community or creator (by Nora Ditrichova, April, 2015)
Interactive environments are most likely to appeal to kinesthetic learners. Although the internet is predominantly text based, thus more likely to appeal linguistic learners, kinesthetic learners can be engaged through the use of interactive technologies such as drag and drop activities, games, virtual reality simulations. Animations and video are not appropriate for engaging the kinesthetic learner as it is a passive medium.
Verbal-Linguistic learning Style

Nolen, J. L. (2005)Multiple intelligences in the classroom. [online]. Education Horizons; v.8 n.6 p.14
Viewed 18/08/15 http://search.informit.com.au/fullText;dn=149027;res=AEIPT

Jackson, A., Gaudet, L., McDaniel, L., & Brammer, D. (2009). Curriculum Integration: The Use Of Technology To Support Learning. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 6(7), 72 Viewed 18/08/15

Helding, L. (2009). Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Journal Of Singing,66(2), 193-199

Flickr (2011), black & white Glasses & Book- exhausting read. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/42931449@N07/6092122923/in/photolist-ahkHU8-htvh5R-qtqGU9-

Flickr (2011), 52:12:Reading. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/gj_thewhite/3605319026/in/photolist-6uAcJS-4qje48-g1EDcJ-gwmFi5-6u8aWX-gwmN7H-gwm16W-3Yf53-

Flickr (2010), Sofia University library. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/plastiqphotos/4562667101/in/photolist-7XbRYa-8NeFVR-pn88qR-nLndH-4r6ViX-53FP23-4gPtot-4GFsHK-9sAuHj-

Flickr (2008), Lord Byron. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/bensutherland/2468253945/in/photolist-4L7rUv-rNeQSr-rS4YUw-efz7A-3avxpA-gfsyrm-jvxE53-KMciX-iaFzb-r6VhhL-bhyhkx-

Flickr (2008). E-learning. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/sarahmstewart/2870681645/in/photolist-5nEZD8-suNZq-9kVqud-9kVqtY-9kVqtS-5tg5Pp-vHPUSU-kvgDpC-opKerd-d9KWnE-

Flickr (2010), Clegg Speech 35. Retrieved from <https://www.flickr.com/photos/libdems/5017919928/in/photolist-8Dq9LQ-6Kqcdd-edeNN5-2eMrS-2eMpo-71TjVN-8vGiV8-7KKN8U-

Beeland, W. D., Jr (n.d.).
Student Engagement, Visual Learning and Technology: Can Interactive Whiteboards Help?
Retrieved from

Kolloffel, B. (2011).
Exploring the relation between visualizer–verbalizer cognitive styles and performance with visual or verbal learning material
Computers & Education, 58, 697-706. DOI:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.09.016

Ozyurt, O., & Ozyurt, H. (2015).
Learning style based individualized adaptive e-learning environments: Content analysis of the articles published from 2005 to 2014
Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 349–358. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.020

Prawat, R.E. (1994).
Philosophical perspectives on constructivist views of learning
, Educational Psychologist, 29(1), 37-48. DOI:10.1207/s15326985ep2901_4

Rolfe, A., Cheek, B. (2012).
Learning styles
, InnovAiT, 5(3), 176-181. DOI:10.1093/innovait/inr239
Visual Learning Style

We have looked at five learning styles that an individual may have a preference for. We have looked at a summary of their key differences and shown how each style is of benefit from the different ways it delivers information and facilitates learning. Knowing one's preferred learning style can enhance participation and promote cohesion within learning groups. A student who is aware of his or her preferred learning style is more likely to learn more effectively. Although it seems clear that there are advantages to adjusting teaching methods to suit particular styles, learning styles theories are still controversial, and should be used as a guide rather than an absolute (Rolfe, 2012).

Auditory Learning Style
Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 191-215 (a)

Bandura, A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1977 (b)

Bandura, A. The self system in reciprocal determinism. American psychologist, 1978, 33, 344-358

Baer, D. M., & Sherman, J. A. Reinforcement control of generalized imitation in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1964, 1, 37-49

Bandura, A. Social Learning through imitation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: 1962. Lincoln: Univer. Nebraska Press, 1962. Pp 211-269

Bandura, A. Vicarious processes: A case of no trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1965, in press

Nora, Ditrichova. Benefits of Social Learning , (7 April, 2015) Retrieved from

Social Learning
Microsoft Vision of the Classroom of the Future, Oct 2011

source: Google image social learning
source: Google image social learning
source: Google image social learning
source: Google image visual learning
source: Google image kinesthetic learning
source: Google image kinesthetic learning
source: Google image online learning
source: Google image auditory learning
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