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Copy of Literary Elements

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Diane Schlauch

on 22 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Literary Elements

Literary Elements
Figurative
Language

Sound Devices
Techniques used by writers to give
musical or rhythmical effects to
their writing.
Commonly used in poetry.
Other
Commonly Used
Literary Tools

What is literature?
Literature is a body of written works on a particular subject. It consists especially of writings that have excellence of form or expression. Quality literature typically expresses ideas of permanent or universal interest.

Literary
Elements

A class of literary conventions that are
not meant to be interpreted literally;
they are to be interpreted imaginatively.

It doesn't mean what it says; it
means MORE than what it says!

Simile
A comparison between two unlike things using like or as.

Examples
My love is like a red, red rose.
His skin was as cold as ice.
They fought like cats and dogs.

“Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.” Carl Sandburg



Metaphor
A comparison between two unlike things that does not use like or as.

Examples
This room is an oven.
You are my sunshine.

“All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances” William Shakespeare
Hyperbole
An extreme exaggeration.

Examples
My backpack weighs a ton!
I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.
I’ve heard that a million times.

“Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world”
by Ralph Waldo Emerson from “The Concord Hymn”
Personification
Giving human-like characteristics to animals or objects.

Examples
The hungry chainsaw growled loudly.

The excited leaves danced in the breeze.

“Because I could not stop for Death--
He kindly stopped for me—”
- Emily Dickinson, “Because I could not stop for death"

Pun
A play on words
Can use different meanings of the same word or different words sounding similar
Most are humorous; can be serious

Examples
I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it
hit me.
To write with a broken pencil is pointless.
Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana.

“Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man.” - a dying character in Romeo and Juliet
Idiom
An expression that has a meaning particular
to a language or region.
Common weird sayings.

Examples
I have butterflies in my stomach.
Actions speak louder than words.
Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.
A penny for your thoughts.
Get up on the wrong side of the bed.
Symbolism
Using symbols to stand for or represent something else.

Examples
Hearts symbolize love.
Doves symbolize peace.

“Two roads diverged in a yellow wood” by Robert Frost in “The Road Not Taken”.
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Repetition
Purposely repeating a word, phrase, sentence, idea, etc. to emphasize a point, to achieve coherence or clarity, to add a rhythmic quality, or to increase momentum and power in writing or speaking

Examples
Choruses of songs; refrains of poems
Alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds.

Examples
Susan tasted the sweet smell of success.
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

“I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet
When far away an interrupted cry
Came over houses from another street,”
“Acquainted with the Night” by Robert Frost
Rhyme
Repetition of sounds at the ends of words.

Examples
An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
One, two, buckle my shoe….

“Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary…”
“The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds with different consonants.

Examples
Free and easy
Make the grade

"Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came." --Carl Sandburg, Early Moon
Consonance
Repetition of consonant sounds with different vowels.

Examples
blank and think boat and night
He drank a cool milk shake at his quick breakfast break.

"Or, if there were a sympathy in choice/ War, death, or sickness did lay siege to it . . ."
Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream
Onomatopoeia
Words that imitate the sounds they are describing.

Examples
buzz, click, crackle, flush, kiss, ratchet, whoosh,
ka-boom, splish, splash, poof, zap, pop

Plop, plop, fizz, fizz, oh what a relief it is!
Alka Seltzer advertizing slogan.

"I'm getting married in the morning!
Ding! Dong! The bells are gonna' chime."
Alan Jay Lerner from
The Music Man

Imagery
Use of words or phrases to appeal to one or more of the senses to create sensory images.
Imagery is used to show, not tell.

"masses of flowers load the cherry branches and color some bushes yellow and some red..."
William Carlos Williams
in "The Widow’s Lament in Springtime"
Foreshadowing
The author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story.

Examples
As the dark clouds rolled in, a brisk wind raised bumps all over my skin.

In Romeo and Juliet, both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart.
Flashback
Interrupts the current action in a story to show a scene from the past.

Example

Danny remembered more about his mother's death than he'd ever told anyone. The day she died, she had called each of her sons to her bedside individually.
Irony
A contradiction between what happens and what is expected.
When what we say or write is the opposite of its literal meaning.

Verbal Irony – when an author says one thing and means something else.
Situational Irony – when what actually happens is the opposite of what is expected to take place.
Dramatic Irony – when an audience perceives something that a character in the literature does not know. Often associated with tragedy.
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Irony (cont.)
"Mother will be happy to hear what you have done now," when Mother will not be at all happy.

"Nice weather!" when it is raining.

When it is Friday the 13th, and you are having the best day ever!

Literary Examples
“Because I could not stop for Death--
He kindly stopped for me—”
- Emily Dickinson, “Because I could not stop for death"


"masses of flowers load the cherry branches and color some bushes yellow and some red..."
William Carlos Williams
in "The Widow’s Lament in Springtime"

Literary Examples
“Here once the embattled farmers stood
And fired the shot heard round the world”
by Ralph Waldo Emerson from “The Concord Hymn”

Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came. --Carl Sandburg, Early Moon

In Romeo and Juliet, both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart.

Literary Examples
"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day…..I have a dream today.”
“I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King, Jr.

Literary Examples
“All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances” William Shakespeare

“Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary…” “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe

"Or, if there were a sympathy in choice/ War, death, or sickness did lay siege to it . . ."
Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night's Dream

Literary Examples
“Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man.” - a dying character in Romeo and Juliet


“I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet
When far away an interrupted cry
Came over houses from another street,”
“Acquainted with the Night” by Robert Frost

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Literary Examples
“Two roads diverged in a yellow wood” by Robert Frost in “The Road Not Taken”.

“Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep.” Carl Sandburg

When Romeo finds Juliet in a drugged sleep, he assumes her to be dead and kills himself. Upon awakening to find her dead lover beside her, Juliet then kills herself.
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare.

"I have a dream that one day this nation will
rise up and live out the true meaning of its
creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the
sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together
at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day…..I have a dream today.”
“I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King, Jr.

Repetition
Full transcript