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Transcript of Sino-Soviet Relations
of Friendship and Alliance Images.google.com
Various Notes 1954
Geneva Conference of 1954 Soviets had provided technical aid in 156 industries in
China’s first five-year plan, and
520 million rubles in
persuaded the Democratic Republic of Vietnam,to temporarily accept the West’s division of Vietnam at the 17th parallel north.
Party Conference 1961
22nd Congress of
the Communist Party
in the Soviet Union 1962
Indian-Sino Border Conflict
USSR supported India 1968
Xinjiang Border Conflict 1969
and Zhenbao Island
Minister Alexei Kosygin
Beijing to speak
with Premier Zhou Enlai 1971
US Secretary of State
Henry Kissinger secret
visit to Beijing in
preparation of President
Nixon's head of state visit 1971-1972
Soviet Union repeatedly
renamed many chinese
named places 1972
US President Nixon official
head of State visit to China Polemics between the CPSU and the CPC criticized
each others' pupils.
China denounced Tito,
Russia denounced Enver Hoxha, leader of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Premier Khrushchev insulted Chairman Mao Zedong as “a nationalist, an adventurist, and a deviationist”.
Mao insulted Khrushchev as a Marxist revisionist, criticizing him as “patriarchal, arbitrary and tyrannical”.
In follow-up, Khrushchev denounced China with an eighty-page letter to the conference. The USSR then withdrew all Soviet experts in China, leaving many projects, economic,
nuclear and social, unfinished.
USSR also withdrew the atomic bomb project and cancelled the sending of a ballistic nuclear missile. USSR severed diplomatic relations with the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania, graduating the Russo-Chinese ideological dispute from between political parties to between nation-states.
The PRC and the USSR broke relations because of their international actions
Chairman Mao criticized Premier Khrushchev for withdrawing from fighting the US in the Cuban missile crisis (1962) “Khrushchev has moved from adventurism to capitulationism”
Khrushchev replied that Mao’s confrontational policies would provoke a nuclear war
USSR had some 12 half-strength divisions and 200 aircraft at that border, seven years later, at the end of 1968, they had 25 divisions, 1,200 aircraft, and 120 medium-range missiles deployed there
Even though China had exploded its first nuclear weapon in October 1964, at the Lop Nur basin, the PLA was militarily inferior to the Soviet Army.
Chinese troops ambushed Soviet border guards on Zhenbao Island.
The Soviets suffered 31 dead and 14 wounded.
They retaliated on March 15 by bombarding Chinese troop concentrations on the Chinese bank of the Ussuri and by storming Zhenbao Island.
Further border clashes in xinjiang
Both Sides claimed victory over the other and accused the other of hostilities 1976
Chairman Mao's death Moreover, in cultural disrespect to China’s legitimate historic territorial claims, between 1971and 1972 the Soviets erased the Chinese and Manchu place-names Iman (Yiman), Tetyukhe (from yzhhé), and Suchan from the Soviet Far East map Chairman Mao Zedong understood that the PRC could not simultaneously confront the USSR and the USA,
and suppress internal disorder
when the Vietnam War was at its worst,
and Chinese anti-American rhetoric at its zenith.
Mao perceived that China’s geographic neighbors, the Soviets, were the greater threat, and thus sought a pragmatic rapprochement with the US, in confronting the USSR. Impacts In the 1970s, Sino-Soviet rivalry extended to Africa and the Middle East, where each funded and supported political parties, armed movements, and states
Ogaden War (1977–78) between Ethiopia and Somalia,
Rhodesian Bush War (1964–79),
the Zimbabwean Gukurahundi (1980–87),
the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002)
the Mozambican Civil War (1977–92)
In the mid-1960s, the Sino-Soviet split was an international relations fact that imbalanced the original bipolar Soviet–American configuration of the Cold War
The People’s Republic of China openly competed against the USSR for the leadership of the international Communist movement
The Cold War had become tripolar.
Military documents of the time indicate that the USSR had more nuclear-attack plans against China than against the US.
China built large-scale underground shelters Beijing’s Underground City for protecting a large portion of the civil populace
Military tunnels, the Underground Project 131 command center, were built in Hubei.
20th Congress of the
Hungarian Revolt 1957
Mao attacked Tito revisionism 1957
1st ICBM and satellite 1958
Quemoy Island incident 1959
USSR cancelled 1957 New Tech and National Defense Pact 1960
Grand conference of 81 Communist Parties in Moscow 1962
Cuban Missile Crisis
Indian-Sino War 1964
Chinese Nuclear weapon completed Khrushchev’s denunciation of Stalin and his attack on the “personality cult
Mao had little respect for Khrushchev and practiced the “personality cult” himself as such he was displeased by this
however he cooperated with Moscow on the surface by reorganizing the CCP Central Committee into a “collective leadership” modeled after the Soviets
Mao was convinced that he represented the torch-bearer of Marxism-Leninism and that the Chinese revolution is the example colonial countries should follow and the Soviet revolution is only applicable to Europe Mao seized the opportunity to serve as bloc mediator and sent his premier and foreign minister, Chou En-lai as the moderator. Chou managed to prevent the Communist world from disintegrating and retained Soviet primacy in the bloc
Peking extended its influence beyond Asia for the first time and provided an alternative voice to Moscow
This showed that the Russians were strongly influenced by the Chinese and that the Russians were no longer the sole leaders of the Communist blocs and showed that the Chinese played a pivotal role too Mao launched an attack on Tito’s revisionism in Yugoslavia
by doing so, he made himself the defender of Marxism-Leninism doctrinal purity
by 1958 Mao had made Peking an alternative centre to Moscow and the indisputable leadership of Soviet Union was broken
Moscow decided to put down the Polish workers’ uprising in mid-Oct by force, however Beijing opposed the decision as she felt that the uprising was caused by “big-power chauvinism” (referring to Moscow’s arrogance and interference in the domestic affairs of other countries)
29 October, Khrushchev told the Chinese that the Hungarians were asking the Soviets to withdraw its army. The Chinese suggested that it was time for them to withdraw its armies
with the withdrawal of the Soviet army, the Hungarian capital Budapest was in chaos and antirevolutionaries were killing communists
the Chinese suggested that the Russians wait for a while more to let more antirevolutionaries expose themselves a tactic they used to smoke out China’s Rightists. However the soviets wanted to withdraw as they felt that if they sent their army to crush the revolt it will be seen as them conquering Hungary
Liu said jokingly to the Russians that yesterday we tried to persuade you to withdraw; today you came and tried to persuade us to agree with our decision to withdraw
The Russian army decided to crush the revolt in the end
Mao considered this the right time to advance the cause of international socialism but Khrushchev hesitated
"The tide has turned, the East Wind has Prevailed over the West Wind" Soviets did not support Peking in capturing the Quemoy islands Khrushchev encouraged visiting Chinese Defense Minister Peng Te-huai to oppose Mao and cancelled the October 1957 pact for New Technology and National Defense the Chinese wanted increased support for wars of liberation
Soviets felt that the dangers of global war were too great and they could takeover peacefully
the final communiqué of the conference issued on Dec 6 1960 supported the Soviet view on peaceful coexistence with minor changes to please the Chinese
Even though Peking subscribed to it, it was obvious that the days of indisputable Soviet leadership was over as Peking could challenge Moscow without risk of expulsion
Mao was displeased about Khruschev's unilateral decision on Cuba
Saw this as proof that the USSR under Khruschev not fit to lead Communism
Mao accused Khruschev of submitting to American propoganda and following 'Revisionism
1964 when a Chinese nuclear device was about to be completed, Khrushchev considered destroying it
1964 October 15 the clash was avoided when the Central Committee relieved Khrushchev as chairman
Refer to sources above
The Sino-Soviet split was a conflict between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. It led to a parallel split in the international Communist movement, although it was as much about Chinese and Soviet national interests as it was about Communist ideology Chan Wai kiu 4A1
Chia Zhong Hao 4A1
Seah Sheng Hui 4O2 Thank You