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IT in time


kritisha gurung

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of IT in time

2600 BC
The abacus- world's first mechanical calculating device 1617
John Napier, Scottish theologian,
mathematician and weapon designer;
invents Napier's bones. 1621
Slide rule invented, using Napier's idea on logarithms. The slide rule is used primarily for multiplication and division, and also for functions such as roots, logarithms and trigonometry, but is not normally used for addition or subtraction. 1642
Blaise Pascal, French theologian and mathematician, invents a calculator he calls the Pascaline - First automatic calculating device 1678
Grillet de Roven, a clock maker to King Louis XIV of France, turned the Pascaline into pocket-sized device. 1679
Leibnitz invents binary
system of counting 1805
Joseph Marie Charles usually known
as Jacquard controled loom by using
punched cards. It played an important
role in the development of
programmable loom and other
machines, such as computers. Charles Babbage known as the father of modern computing In 1822, he designed 'Difference Engine'
for calculating- First Digital Computer ,
assisted by Ada Lovelace. Babbage's Analytical
Engine desing that was never built, had similar ideas to the modern computer. 1890
Herman Hollerith 1913
Vacuum Tube 1936
Konrad Zuse's greatest achievement/ invention, world's first functional program- controlled Turing- complete computer, Z3 computer, Binary digital computer using punch tape. 1937
John Atanasoff built first electronic computer a device controlling electric current. First commercially successful computer. 1941 Zuse Z3 built, first working programmed computer. 1939
Howard Aiken with IBM, constructed a fully automatic calculator called the Mark I. It was 17m by 2.5m and contained three million electrical connections and 805 km of wire. 1945
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), first general-purpose stored-program electronic computer. It was invented by John Eckert Jr and John mauchly and was completed in 1946. Von Neumann architecture, also known as the Von Neumann model or the Princeton architecture, comes from a 1945 computer architecture proposal by the mathematician and early computer scientist John von Neumann and others. It is a design architecture for an electronic digital computer, a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The design of a Von Neumann architecture is simpler than the modern Harvard architecture which is also a stored-program system but has one dedicated set of address and data buses for memory, and another set of address and data buses for fetching instructions. A stored-program digital computer is one that keeps its programmed instructions, as well as its data, in read-write, random-access memory (RAM). Stored-program computers were an advancement over the program-controlled computers of the 1940s, such as the Colossus and the ENIAC, which were programmed by setting switches and inserting patch leads to route data and to control signals between various functional units. In the vast majority of modern computers, the same memory is used for both data and program instructions. 1945 John Von Neumann 1947
Invention of Transistor. is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. 1975 The first popular personal computer called "Altair" was advertised in "Popular Electronics". The machine had no memory, no keyboard, no display, and no printer. Input was via a bank of switches on the front panel and output was via a row of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The first personal computer to grab the public's imagination was the "Apple". It was put together by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs in a garage to show members of their computer club. The Apple was made at home, but unlike any other personal computer at that time, it contained everything in one package. In 1977 the "Apple II" was produced and it is described as the first personal computer that almost anyone could use. It contained the 6502 8-bit microprocessor, with 4 kilobytes of RAM and a cassette recorder for secondary storage. 1984 IBM released the first high-powered personal computer. It was called the IBM PC and had an open architecture, which meant that others could copy its method of operation.It offered 16 kilobytes of RAM expandable to 64 kilobytes and was based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor . Microsoft was commissioned to design the operating system that became known as MS-DOS. Local area networks (LANs) connect computers within a building or group of buildings on one site. Computers are linked together by coaxial cable, fibre optic cable or wireless hub. They improve communication and allow the sharing of hardware and software. Wide area networks (WANs) connect computers over hundreds or thousands of kilometres. The internet is a WAN that links computer all over the world.
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