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Habib Canadian History

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Mohammad Tahir

on 20 June 2013

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Transcript of Habib Canadian History

Making History
Table of Contents
Terry Fox
World War 1: Causes, Trench Warfare, Battles
In the 1920s and 1930s: Technology, Fashion, Cycles, Winnipeg General Strike, Prohibition, Great Depression
World War 2: Hitler, Battles, The holocaust
The 1950s: Avro Arrow,The Korean War, Television, Music and Culture
The 1960s: The Quiet Revolution,The Cuban Missile Crisis,
The 1970s: FLQ,, The Oil Crisis, The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The 1980s:
The 1990s: OKA
Terry Fox
7.28.1958 - 6.28.1981
Canadian humanitarian, athlete, cancer treatment activist. One of Canada’s heroes of the 20th century.
After losing his right leg at age 20 to cancer, he decided to run from coast to coast in order to raise money or cancer research. He couldn’t finish his run as the cancer to his lung. However, his marathon of hope captured the nation’s attention and he was proclaimed a national hero.

World War One
1914-1918

Causes
Military: It is the preparation for war. At the time, Britain had the most powerful navy and Germany was trying to expand theirs. This established strong navies and prepared them for war. Each military wants its military to be stronger than those of any potential enemy.
Assassination: The assassination of the archduke of Austria Franz Ferdinand was when this war started. Serbian nationalist secret society “ The Black Hand”
Nationalism: It is a deep loyalty to one's nation. Being a strong supporter of the rights and freedoms of ones country. Gavrilo Princip from Serbia was the person who triggered WWI by killing Archduke from Austria-Hungary, because the Austria-Hungary controlled Serbia at the time. This is an example of extreme nationalism because he was showing loyalty to his own country.
Imperialism: The building of power by controlling over colonies. Countries were arguing over colonies and this caused them to war. When countries take over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule.
Alliances: It is the formal agreement of support among countries in the event of an attack. This caused WWI because the conflicts originally involved between two countries were likely to involve many more countries due to the alliance. For example, Germany was an ally of Austria Hungary, if they were at war, then Germany would be automatically at war

Alliances
Triple Entente Triple Alliance
Great Britain Germany
France Austria-Hungary
Russia Italy
Trench Warfare
From Bennett, James Howard

December 8, 1918

Dear Byde,

Just a line to-night to let you know that I am still alive. No doubt you will think me dead long before this it is so long since I wrote, but we haven’t been able to send or receive mail for the last three weeks.
We crossed into Germany yesterday, and haven’t been used too harsh so far, although some of them give us a rather hard look at times. We have been travelling all the time for the last three weeks and still have a few days to go before reaching home, but hardly expect it for some time soon, not likely before spring.
Well I want to go to bed now as we are liable to called at any time after three in the morning and I want a little sleep. Did I tell that the trench mortars were disbanded?

Your Affec. Bro.Jim

#639517 Cpl.J.H. Bennet
58th howitzer Bty.
5th Div. Can. Artillery
France

Schlieffen Plan
What is the plan?
•Germany’s first target was France
•Germany’s general Alfred Von Schlieffen’s plan was to defeat France first, then turn Germany’s attention to Russia
•Germany did not want a war on two fronts ( fighting Russia and France at the same time)
•The Shlieffen was based on assumptions
Why the plan failed?
•Britain mobilized quickly and helped French troops halt the Germans.
•Germans troops were not as strong as they had planned ( Miracle of the Marne)
•Belgium troops fought back
•Russia had mobilized quickly

In Flanders Fields
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

Women in the War
In 1917 some women received the right to vote only some but had to have a relative (Father, Brother, Husband) who was in the war or a soldier. Manitoba became the first province in Canada to give women the right to vote. Saskatchewan and Alberta were next and then British Columbia and Ontario.
Nellie McClung in 1917 won the first federal election.

Sam Hughes
January 8, 1853 – August 23, 1921
KCB, PC
Canadian minister of militia and defense during World War 1
Notable for being the last liberal
Conservative cabinet minister
He constructed a training camp in Valcartier, Quebec

Sir Robert Borden
June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937
PC, GCMG, KCA
Lawyer and Politician
The 8th prime minister of Canada from October 10, 1911 to July 10, 1920(3rd Nova Scotian)
Chancellor of Queens University

In June 1917, the government passed the military service act and Sir Robert Borden introduced conscription

The Group of Seven
The group of seven were Canadian landscape artists inspired by the wilderness paintings by Tom Thomson, who died under mysterious circumstances while on a trek in Ontario’s Algonquin Park in 1917.
The artists were strongly influenced by Post-Impressionism, creating bold. Vividly coloured canvasses and infusing elements of the landscape with symbolic meaning.
The group was not limited to the seven founding members, and they eventually changed their name to Canadian Group of Painters. Besides Thomson the group included; Franklin Carmichael, A.J. Casson, Lionel Fitzgerald, Arthur Lismer, Lawren Harris, Edwin Holgate, A.Y. Jackson, J.E.H. MacDonald and F.H. Varley. West coast painter Emily Carr was inspired by the group early in her career.

Treaty of Versailles
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson of the United States met to discuss how Germany should pay for the damage World War 1 had caused. They blamed Germany for all the damage and destruction.
Terms of Treaty
War guilt clause
Reparations- 6.6 million pounds to pay.
Disarmament-No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed.
Territorial Clauses- Land of Germany was taken and given to the other countries.

League of Nations
An international organization set up in 1919.
• To help stop any wars from occurring
• Country / Country=the league of Nations would try and work out a peace deal
• Country which doesn’t listen to the league = No Trade with other countries
Failure of Appeasement
During the 1930s, many politicians in France and England agreed that the terms from the treaty of Versailles were unfair, and so Germany deserved some of its land back.
In May 1937, Neville Chamberlain became prime minister of England. He believed that by giving in to a few of Hitler’s commands it would prevent another war.
That is why this idea became known as the policy of Appeasement.

Billy Bishop
8th February 1894 – 11 September 1956
Air Marshal VC, CB, DSO and Bar, MC, DFC, ED
Canadian first World War flying Ace
Credited by 72 victories
Top Canadian ace
Top Ace of the British empire
He was acclaimed a hero by Canadians and he received many awards for his acts during the war.

Halifax Explosion
Thursday December 6th 1917
The world’s Largest man-made accidental explosion
A French cargo ship full of wartime explosives collided with Norwegian SS Imo in “The Narrows” section of the Halifax harbour.
Enemy Aliens
In 1914, more than a million people from Germany and Austria-Hungary, which were called enemy aliens, lived in Canada.
Citizens of a country which is in a state of conflict with the land in which they are located.

The End of World War 1
• A big change occurred in April 1917: The United States entered the war.
• US President Woodrow Wilson had long wanted to remain neutral and stay out of the war.
• In 1917, Germany declared war on all Atlantic shipping routes.
• Germany also attempted to create an alliance with Mexico to attack the United States.
In the final 100 days of the war, Canada captures:
• 130km of land
• 31,357 prisoners
• 623 pieces of artillery
• 2842 machine guns
• 336 mortars
German Armstice
• At 5 am on November 11th, 1918, Germany signed an armistice agreeing to a cease-fire beginning at 11 am that day (11th month, 11th day,11th hour).
• Word began to spread to armies but the fighting did not stop.
• 2,738 men died on the final day of war.

Was The War Worth It
Positive Results:
• Canada was now an equal partner with Britain in world affairs, no longer a mere colony.
• Canada took great pride in the accomplishments of their fighting forces and the people at home.
• Canadian women received the right to vote.
• Canada was granted two seats at the peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles. Canada was also a signatory in its own right to the treaty, not as a British colony.
• Canada won an independent seat with voting rights in the newly formed League of Nations.
Negative Results:
• Almost one-third of all Canadian enlistments were casualties during the war. Of these, 61,326 died and 172,950 were wounded.
• By the end of the war French - and English – speaking Canadians were bitterly divided over the question of conscription.
• As a result of the War Measures Act, Canadians shipped innocent people to internment camps and lost some basic freedoms to government control during the war.
• Income tax became a permanent fixture of Canadian society.

In the 1920’s and the 1930’s
In the 1920s, there were many advancements in technology and many new discoveries were made.
In 1893, Henry Ford built the first automobile and finally in the 1920s, cars were available to the mass market.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
Frederick Banting discovered insulin for diabetics
The first commercial flight took place.
New type of music Jazz

Prohibition
• Secret saloon bars opened up in cellars and back rooms of businesses called speakeasies
• They had names like the ‘Dizzy Club’ and drinkers had to give a password or knock at the door in code to be let in
• Speakeasies sold ‘bootleg’ alcohol and were often controlled by the mob
• The public ultimately won and most provinces decided to eliminate the law
• Violent crime and family violence decreased dramatically even after prohibition ended
• Organized crime increased dramatically (they often bribed Canadian officials to turn a blind-eye to their bootlegging)
• Government regulation , which is still in effect today, became the solution to the problem in the end (e.g. the LCBO)

• The Canadian Government made it legal to produce alcohol for export (charge taxes) and medicinal purposes
• Smugglers called ‘Bootleggers’ made thousands of dollars selling illegal alcohol to America
•In the 1920s, the term prohibition refers to times where alcoholic drinks were prohibited by law
•The law prohibited the manufacturing, importation and sale of alcohol
•The acts of groups who disagreed with the sale of alcohol was called the “Temperance Movement”
•It was considered unpatriotic to enjoy yourself while soldiers were suffering and fighting in the war
•Two important ingredients in alcohol: grain and sugar
•These needed to be preserved for the war effort
•Men were spending far too much money on alcohol instead of on their families. This lead to poverty
•Men often missed work due to hangovers
•Many fights were breaking out in public
•Crimes and family violence were very common

Speakeasies
Bootleggers
What Happened?
The 1920's
Politics
1921-William Lyon Mackenzie King = Prime Minister
1926-Arthur Meighen = Prime Minister for 3 days

Market Demand
Increased Investment
Expansion of Production
Demands for Goods and Services Increased
Demand for Labor Increases
Prosperity Cycle
Women in the 1920’s
Fashion
Up until this point, women’s clothing had been very conservative. Women wore corsets under their clothing designed to constrict and confine a woman’s figure. Pre 1920s women had to were a dress that went down to her feet to hide their legs and had to wear hats every time they were going outside. Then in the 1920s women began to wear new dresses, which came down just below their knees. New hairstyles such as “bobs” or “shingles” became popular. Women no longer wore corsets. They often opted for a loosely fitting chemise instead. Makeup became more accepted.
Flappers
In the 1920s the term “flapper” was used to describe bold young women who dressed and acted in an unconventional and unusual manner.

The Winnipeg General Strike
On May 15, 1919, 30,000 Winnipeg workers walked off the job at 11 a.m.
The strike divided the city and the country.
On June 21st, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police broke up a strikers rally.

The Dust Bowl
In 1929, a terrible drought began. It lasted nearly 10 years. Nearly 14,000 farms were abandoned during the depression.
The 1930s
Great Depression
Stocks were at an all-time high. People were buying into stocks because they kept rising and they were a guaranteed profit. People were spending money they did not have and were taking loans from the bank to put even more money in. Rumors began to surface that the stock market was as high as it was going to get and was going to slow down sooner or later.
On “Black Tuesday” Oct 29th, 1929, the Stock Market in NYC crashed. Stock prices became so low that people could no longer sell them. Many banks had also invested. After the crash, these banks had to close as well.

Causes of Great Depression
Over Production and Expansion
Canada’s dependence on a few Staple Resources
Canada’s dependence on the United States
High Tariffs
Too Much Buying on Credit
Too much Credit Buying of Stocks
Market Decline
Investment Declines
Production Decreases
Layoffs, Unemployment, Labor Surplus
Wages Decrease, Buying Power Lessened
Depression Cycle
Canadian Relief Camps
October 1932, R.B. Bennett established a network of relief camps for unemployed and homeless men which were run by the military. In return for bunkhouse home, 3 meals a day, work clothes, medical care and 20 cents a day, they worked 44-hr weeks clearing bush, building roads, planting trees and constructing public buildings.
World War 2
1939-1945

1933: Hitler is chosen Chancellor of Germany
1935: German army will recruit more than 100,000 men
1936: Hitler orders his troops to the demilitarized zone known as the Rhineland (border line between France and Germany)
1938:August-Hitler annexes Austria. This is known as Anschluss.
September: Hitler demands the return of Sudetenland (an area given to Czechoslovakia after World War 1)October: Italy and Germany sign an axis cooperation pact known as the Axis Powers.
1939 March: Nazi troops invade the rest of Czechoslovakia
August 23: The Soviet Union and Germany sign a Non-aggression pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact)
September 1: Hitler orders the invasion of Poland
September 3: Britain and France declare war on Germany
September 10: Canada declares war on Germany
September 17: Soviets invade Poland from the east.

The Allies vs. The Axis
Great Britain Germany
US Italy
USSR Japan
France
Canada

Battle of Atlantic
September 3rd 1939-> May 8th 1945
It was a struggle to protect Allied ships in the North Atlantic from patrolling German submarines.
Vessels crossing the Atlantic carried essential supplies from North American ports to Britain.
Canadian forces played an important role in protecting the convoys of merchant ships from enemy submarines.
-2,000 Canadians died
The Canadian air force gave air cover to the vessels.

Dieppe
August 19th 1942
The purpose of the raid was to capture the town of Dieppe on the English channel.
The plan went wrong once the convoy was discovered by a German ship.
The disaster began immediately as German guns, with clear line of fire onto the beaches, slaughtered the soldiers who made it ashore.
The Royal Navy managed to rescue several hundred.
The rest were killed, wounded, or captured.

Stalingrad
Summer of 1942 - February 1943
Stopped the German southern advance and turned the tide of war.
Stalingrad proved for the first time that the Germans could be beaten in the field.
The Russian encircled the German army trapping them in Stalingrad, cutting them off from supplies and reinforcements which slowly starved them to death.

Ortona
December 20th – 28th 1943
Surrounded by hills and gullies the town was difficult to attack.
The Germans barricaded themselves in to houses and mined the streets.
The fighting was house-to-house-literally- the Canadians blasted their way through walls to get from building to building.

D-Day
June 6th August 21st
1944
The largest invasion force in human history
By June 30th, over 850,000 men, 148,000 vehicles, and 570,000 tons of supplies had landed on Normandy shores.
Winston Churchill(Great Britain) and Franklin Roosevelt(USA) decided to invade through Normandy because the German army expected them at Pas de Calais.
For the first month following D-Day landings, a stalemate developed and the allies reinforced itself.
Canadian contribution 10,300 casualties 5,021 dead.

What is the connections between Hitler and The Battles?
Some countries did not like how Hitler gained power and how he treated the Jews.
The Holocaust
1933 – 1939

Phase One, 1933
Boycott of Jewish businesses
“Non-Aryans” excluded from: Government, Law Practice, Medicine, Teaching, Entertainment, Military, Press.
Limited number of “Non-Aryans” attending high school or university to 1.5 percent of students
Jewish people prohibited from owning land.
Phase Two, 1935
The Nuremberg Laws
The Nuremberg Laws (1935) were anti-Semitic laws that took away civil rights and (in effect) citizenship from German Jews. It made life very difficult for Jewish people in Germany. There were laws like Jewish and Germens were not allowed to get married or have sex, and Jewish people were not allowed to go to cinemas or use busses and trains and they even had their businesses taken away from them.
This was Hitler’s attempt to slowly remove Jewish people from German society. It was very successful.
Separated Jews from Germans practically, socially and legally.
Made Jewish people non-citizens.
Later Nazi decrees stripped Jewish people of their rights as human beings.

Phase 3 1938-1939
All Jewish people made to carry special ID cards.
Mass Arrest begin:
Sent “temporarily” to concentration camps.

Kristallnacht
“Night of Broken Glass”

9 and 10 November, 1938
The Nazis organized a national riot against the Jewish people in Germany. The SS and Gestapo(Hitler’s personal army) encouraged people to destroy Jewish synagogues, home and businesses.
Germany was left with covered in broke galss from all the Jewish windows that were smashed.
There were 91 Jewsih people killed in Germany.
The SS sent 30,000 Jewish people to concentration camps by trains. These were specially built prisons were Jewish people were worked till their death.
Adolf Hitler could now act openly against the Jews because nobody stopped the Nazis from hurting the Jews on Kristallnacht.
Adolf Hitler decided at this point that he could attck anybody that he wanted to. He did not just stop at the Jews. He also attacked Gypsies, disabled people, Homosexuals, the elderly and Russians.

What Was a Ghetto?
In 1939, the Nazis made all the jews in Nazi Europe live in areas called Ghettos. Most of these Ghettos were in Poland. Ghettos were parts of towns and cities that had large fences around them. The Nazi’s gave Jewish peoplevery little food, no warm clothes, bad housing and little medicine. Jews were shot if they tried to escape.The main aim for Jews who lived in the Ghettos was to survive . This really annoyed the Nazis because they wanted them to die.in 1942, Adolf Hitlet decided that Jewish families were dieing too slowly in the Ghettos. He decided that a faster way to kill, the Jewish people was to send them to concentration camps.
The Final Solution
Nazi’s organize death camps and extermination programs
All Jews in German controlled territory sent by train to camps.
Poisoned in Gas chambers
Corpses burned or buried.
Genocide murder of every Jewish person.
Einsatzgruppen murder 1 million in two years
6 million Jewish people were killed during the holocaust or 63% of all Jewish people living in Europe

Blitzkrieg(Lightning War)
Offense using an entire army – infantry, tanks, aircraft, artillery, navy, etc.
Focus on using overwhelming force to break the enemy quickly
Use constant motion to keep the enemy off-balance

Propaganda
Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation aimed at serving an agenda. At its root, the denotation of propaganda is 'to propagate (actively spread) a philosophy or point of view’. People used propaganda to; justify their involvement to their own populace, as a means of recruiting men, a way to raise money and resources to sustain the military campaign and to urge conservation
The End of the War
April 30th 1945
With Soviet troops coming to take the German Capital, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker in Berlin
May 8th, 1945
V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)
The German Troops have surrendered.
August 15th, 1945
V-J Day o V-P Day (Victory over Japan or Victory in the Pacific in Japan Day)
Japan Surrenders.

Mussolini’s Second Roman Empire
In 1922, Benito Mussolini and his fascist followers (Blackshirts) march on Rome and formed a government.
By 1925, Mussolini proclaimed himself dictator or Il Duce
Mussolini outlawed rival political parties and strikes used propaganda and censored press.
He was credited with eliminating social chaos and economic inefficiency.
His dream was to restore to Italy the Grandeur and might of the Roman Empire.
Like Japan, Mussolini believed that Italy’s problems could be solved with foreign expansion.
In1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia, the only independent nation left in Africa.
The League of Nations imposed limited sanctions on Italy but it was not enough. Italy could still access Ethiopia’s oil.

The 1950s
The Korean War
25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953
was a war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union.
June 1950, communists sent 100,600 troops into South Korea.
The UN Security Council voted to send in American troops to defend.
Canada sent 3 navy destroyers and later, ground troops.
Fighting ended in July 1953
The two Nations are still officially at war

Cuban Missile Crisis
1962
Soviets had been shipping weapons (including nuclear missiles) to Cuba.
JFK threatened military action if missiles were not removed
Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Leader) refused to standoff
5 days later, Khrushchev backed down

Détente
Superpowers realized dangers of nuclear war – “hot-line” set up between Washington and Moscow to prevent any misunderstandings.
1943 – U.S. and Soviet signed a Nuclear Test Ban treaty.
By 1979, both had signed the SALT agreements (Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties)

The Avro Arrow
In the 1950s a Canadian company, A.V. Roe, designed a fighter plane called the “Avro Arrow”.
The Arrows purpose was to defend Canada from Soviet Attack.
It was argued to be the most advanced fighter jet ever, in terms of speed, fuel consumption, and weapons capability; some historians disagree, saying the results were fake.
Unlike other technologies in Canada, the arrow was a 100% Canadian made.
The project was canceled in 1959, and the models and plans ordered to be destroyed. According to Diefenbaker, the arrow was too expensive to produce. Even today, though, theorists argue that the American government ordered Diefenbaker to scrap the project because it was too threatening to the U.S., and there were concerns that the plans might fall into Soviet hands.

The 1960’s
Quiet Revolution
In 1962- provincial election Lesage adopted the slogan “ Maitrez chez nous”. This motto summed up the spirit of the Quiet Revolution and reflected Quebecois’ desire to control their own province. He was re-elected.
Political Changes
He lowered the voting age to 19
Social Changes
Modernizing the province’s educations system
Joining Medicare
Revising the labor code to give unions more power
Giving married women legal status
Providing a pension plan for senior citizens
Quebec was given the power to decide how to spend the money shared by the federal government. The only province with this right.

The 1970's
FLQ
The Quiet Revolution had sparked new pride in the French speaking Canadians – and some came to believe that the only way to protect their language and culture was to create an independent Quebec.
The Front de Liberation du Quebec (FLQ) was the most extreme separatist group formed. It members Pierre Laporte, Quebec minister of labour and immigration used to terrorism to independent, socialist Quebec. Between 1963 and 1970, they carried out a bombing campaign.
Kidnapped James Cross on October 5th, 1970.
Kidnapped Pierre Laporte and his body was found on October 17th 1970.
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau used the War Measures Act on October 16th, 1970, to ban the FLQ. 450 people were arrested.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the cornerstone of the Canadian Constitution. It protects the individual rights and recognizes that all the Canadians have basic rights that no government can take away without just cause. Such as Freedom of Speech and Assembly, Democratic Rights, Mobility Rights, Legal Rights, Equality Rights and Language Rights.
Oil Crisis
1973
The 1973 Oil Crisis started in October 1973, when the members of “Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries” or the ‘OAPEC’ proclaimed an oil embargo “in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli Military” during the Yom Kippur war, it lasted until March 1974.With the U.S. action s seen as initiating the oil embargo and the long term possibility of high oil prices, disrupted supply and recession, a strong rift was created within NATO.

The 1980's and on
Battle of the Somme
It took place during the First World War between 1st July and 18th November 1916 on either side of the Somme river that is in France. It was one of the largest battles of the war where the British and the French were fighting the Germans. In the battle 624,000 Allied killed for 545 km of land
Oka Crisis
July 11, 1990-September 26th, 1990
The Oka Crisis was a violent land dispute between the Mohawk nation of Kanesatake and the town of Oka.
According to the record, in 1717, the governor of New France granted the lands encompassing the cemetery and the pines to a catholic seminary. The Mohawk have always claimed that this grant was illegal. In 1936, the seminary sold the territory and vacated the area
The Oka lasted seventy-eight days and resulted in the death of one man, Corporal Marcel Leranay. The golf-course expansion, which had originally triggered the situation, was canceled. The Oka crisis precipitated the development of Canada’s First Nations Policing policy. Jean Quellette was re-elected Mayor of Oka by acclamation in 1991.
VS.
The Second Battle of Ypres was a First World War battle fought for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium in the spring of 1915, following the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn. It was Germany versus the French, The British and the Canadians. It marked the first time that Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front. Also, the battle was the first time that a former colonial force (the 1st Canadian Division) defeated a major European power (the German Empire) on European soil, in the Battle of St. Julien-Kitcheners' Wood. More than 6,000 Canadians died.
Second Battle of Ypres
Vimy Ridge
The battle of Vimy Ridge took place on April 9, 1917. The Canadian soldiers had been ordered to seize Vimy Ridge. All four Canadian divisions had fought together on the same battlefield for the first time. This historic battle took place in the city of Arras which is in Northern France. Since Vimy Ridge was under German control, the French and the British wanted to capture Vimy Ridge. Canadian troops were chosen to lead a new attack in late 1916 on this Ridge. On April 9th, 1917 Canadian forces follow the plan and assault German defenders. All four Canadian divisions came together and fought for the first time. Canada's soldiers were the front line and were the strongest. The Canadians were commanded by Lt.-General Sir Julian Byng and Major-General Arthur Currie. Finally, after all the agony, Canadians were successful at the Vimy Ridge battle and captured Hill 145 on April 10th, 1917. Then, on April 12th, 1917, after a short battle, Canadians capture Vimy Ridge at last. This truly was a stunning victory for Canadians.
July 10th- October 31st
1940
First battle in the history to be fought entirely in the air.
The British royal air force defeated the German Luftwaffe’s
One Canadian air force unit took part but may more Canadians served as pilots in RAF.

Battle of Britain
The Battle of Vimy Ridge
The battle of Vimy Ridge took place on April 9, 1917. The Canadian soldiers had been ordered to seize Vimy Ridge. All four Canadian divisions had fought together on the same battlefield for the first time. This historic battle took place in the city of Arras which is in Northern France. Since Vimy Ridge was under German control, the French and the British wanted to capture Vimy Ridge. Canadian troops were chosen to lead a new attack in late 1916 on this Ridge. On April 9th, 1917 Canadian forces follow the plan and assault German defenders. All four Canadian divisions came together and fought for the first time. Canada's soldiers were the front line and were the strongest. The Canadians were commanded by Lt.-General Sir Julian Byng and Major-General Arthur Currie. Finally, after all the agony, Canadians were successful at the Vimy Ridge battle and captured Hill 145 on April 10th, 1917. Then, on April 12th, 1917, after a short battle, Canadians capture Vimy Ridge at last. This truly was a stunning victory for Canadians.

The Second Battle of Ypres
The Second Battle of Ypres was a First World War battle fought for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium in the spring of 1915, following the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn. It was Germany versus the French, The British and the Canadians. It marked the first time that Germany used poison gas on a large scale on the Western Front. Also, the battle was the first time that a former colonial force (the 1st Canadian Division) defeated a major European power (the German Empire) on European soil, in the Battle of St. Julien-Kitcheners' Wood. More than 6,000 Canadians died.
By: Habib Rehman

Trench Warfare
Trench warfare was military stalemate strategy widely used in Europe during the first World War. Soldiers lived in deep trenches and underground bunkers. Military soldiers fought to break through enemy lines by attacking in suicide charges into endless gun fire. It was a type of combat where opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other
Japan Attack Pearl Harbor
On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Japanese launched a surprise air attack on the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. After just two hours of bombing, over than 2,400 Americans were dead, 21 ships had either been damaged, and more than 188 U.S. aircraft's were destroyed.

The attack at Pearl Harbor made Americans so outraged that the U.S. abandoned its policy of isolationism and declared war on Japan the very next day -- officially bringing the United States into World War II.
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