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The Nationalist Movement

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praseeda kurup

on 11 January 2018

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Transcript of The Nationalist Movement

The Nationalist Movement
Aims of Congress
Promote friendly relation between nationalist and political workers through out the country
To formulate popular demands and place these before the government
To organise and train public opinion in the country
The Moderate Era 1885-1905
Famous leaders
Dadabai Naoroji
Feroz Shah Mehta
Gopal krishna Gokale
Stages of National movement
Three eras-
Each era had its own demands , methodology & leaders
The Moderate era [1885-1905]
The Radical era [1905-1919]
The Gandhian era [1919-1947]
Indian National Congress (INC)
Nationalism is a feeling of oneness, togetherness and common consciousness based on political, historical, religious, linguistic, racial, cultural and psychological and other factors in a state.
Socio-religious reforms and cultural awakening
Through: Brahmo- Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission and Theosophical Society.
They became aware of their heritage and their respect for their religion, culture and philosophy.
The Indians were then filled with self-confidence.
Spread of Western thought and English education
After 1833, Indians were atracted towards western thought and English education.
The writings of different people instilled ideas of equality, liberty, fraternity, human rights and self-government.
The Indians began to aspire for these.
Brahmo Samaj
India's Economic Exploitation
The British took raw material from India at cheap rates.
Sold their finished products in Indian market at higher rates.
Indian market was not opened to any other foreign power.
The role of the Press and Literature
The Indian press and literature created a political awakening and a spirit of patriotism among people.
Some leading newspapers criticized the government's wrong polcy and voiced the demands of the people. eg; Indian Mirror, Kesari, Hindu etc.
Writings of great Indian writers like Bankim Chandra Chatterji, Rabindranath Tagore etc. produced a spirit of nationalism and love for freedom.
Lord Lytton's Vernacular Press Act
Lord Lytton passed the Vernaculr Press Act (1878), surpressing the freedom of Indian press- not allowed to criticize government policies.
If the Indian publishers violate the Act, their press were confiscated and the editors punished.
He passed another reresive act called Arms Act.
Ilbert Bill Agitation
The Ilbert Bill was introduced in 1883 which aimed at removing the discrimination between Indian and European judges.
The Europeans opposed the Bill in a well-organized manner which was an eye-opener to Indians.
In 1885, INC was found by A. O. Hume, a retired civil servant at Bombay.
W. C. Bannerji, a barrister from Bengal was the first President.
The Viceroy, Lord Dufferin blessed the Congress, thinking that it would be a good forum for the government to keep itself informed about the Indian public opinion.
A. O. Hume
W. C. Bannerji
Moderate Phase
More participation in govt affairs
Repeal the ArmsAct & seperation of judiciary from executive
Higher post for Indians
Abolition of Salt tax ,reduction in land revenue and less expenditure on millitary
More social welfare reforms
Methods /strategy
Peaceful propaganda through press
Sending memorandum and delegations
Holding annual sessions
Passing resolution and advancing pleas
Making petitions
Privided leadership
Bridge between govt and common people
Pointed out the short coming of the govt
Paved way for a vigorous national movement by a strong organizational base
Influenced the people by a group of learned men

Aggressive phase /Radicals
{Nationalist who wanted to get freedom through any sacrifice}

Japanese victory over Russia influenced the National leaders.
British government became more hostile to the Congress.
New leaders in Congress felt the need for more aggressive demands than appeals.
They also had 'Swaraj' as their objective.
Prominent leaders
Aurobindo Gosh
To get 'Swaraj' or complete independence.
To oppose the reactionary attitude of British bureaucracy and to check their high-headness.
To strive for ecenomic prosperity.
To revise India's cultural heritage and its glory.
To inculcate a spirit of self-reliance and self-confidence in people.
Believed in political action- Non-co-operation with British.
Prepared to undergo sufferings and sacrifice for the sake of their nation.
Three-fold action-
(a) Boycott of foreign goods
(b) Swadeshi
(c) National education
Political goal and methods
Revival of India's glory.
Mass involvement.
Popularise the achievements of Swaraj.
Mass base to National Movement.
Boycott and Swaraj became the motto of the INC in the later phase.
1.A leader of the moderate phase _
2.Moderate peroid-
3. A method followed by them-

Level 1
1. Expand the following
a. INC.
b. Lal-Bal-Pal
2. Define swaraj.
Level 2
3. Mention two methods followed by the radicals
Level 3
4. Do you think radicals could create a change in the national movement. Support your answer with example.
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