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War on Terror
Transcript of War on Terror
Soviet-backed Communist government ruled Afghanistan in 1979
Anti-Soviet sentiment in Afghanistan was powerful
Islamic fundamentalist groups (Mujahideen) fought guerrilla war against Soviet and Afghan government forces (deemed as Russia's Vietnam)
Taliban originally subdivision of Mujahideen
United States supported Mujahideen
Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after ten years of combat
War between tribes continued after Soviet withdrawal WHERE WAS THE RIFLE MADE (2)? Taliban emerged to power and ended civil war (1996)
Imposed strict Islamic laws and issued brutal punishments to offenders
Strongly resented nations that allowed citizens to escape from Afghanistan (esp. United States)
Supported by Al Qaeda (militant organization supporting Taliban) WHERE WAS THE RIFLE MADE? (3) August, 1998: Al Qaeda stage coordinated attacks on US Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya, killing 224 people. After the embassy bombings, the US military fired cruise missiles on Al Qaeda strongholds in Sudan and Afghanistan. October 2000: Al Qaeda bombs the USN destroyer, USS Cole, on the coast of Yemen. 17 USN personnel died. WHAT WAS IN THE FRONTAL SIGHT? AND WHAT WAS IN THE REAR SIGHT? WHAT AMMUNITION DID THEY LOAD AND FIRE FROM THE RIFLE? PATRIOT ACT: 1984 A REALITY? The Patriot Act launched after the 9/11 attacks sometimes deemed unconstitutional
Reduced restrictions on law enforcement in obtaining personal records and conducting surveillances
Increasing number of deportations and detentions of immigrants
4th Ammendment in US Constitution: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. AFGHANISTAN 2001: Operation Enduring Freedom Commences
October: President Bush issuess ultimatum for Taliban government to turn over high-ranking Al Qaeda leaders to the US; US led coalition invades Afghanistan
Coalition ousts Taliban a month later, seizing Afghan capital of Kabul IRAQ 2002: Coalition forces launch Operation Anaconda in attempts to capture and kill Osama bin Laden. The guerrilla tactics of Al Qaeda and Taliban allow Bin Laden along with senior leaders to escape into Pakistan. Didn't catch me this time! 2011: Members of the US Navy's SEAL Team Six successfully manage to kill Osama bin Laden in Northwest Pakistan. You won't get away this time, Laden. 2003-2005: Taliban and Al Qaeda forces reorganized in Pakistan and Southern Afghanistan and began relying on more surprise tactics to infiltrate coalition forces. The Taliban shall rise again... 2008: The United States pulls forces out of Iraq to refocus its attention on Afghanistan. Number of American troops in Afghanistan doubles. Taliban severs ties with Al Qaeda. Revolt against Saddam Hussein's gov't took place in Iraq during 2003. Like the Al Qaeda and Taliban, Saddam was a Sunni Muslim. He oppressed Shia Muslims and had feuds with the United States since the First Gulf War in 1991. DOWN WITH SADDAM HUSSEIN! March 2003: CIA picks up intelligence regarding WMD presence in Iraq. Along with its allies, the United States invades Iraq, helping rebels overthrow Saddam's government a month after. Iraqis vote in Shia-dominated Transitional National Assembly (2005). Insurgency insurgency by Saddam loyalists and groups affiliated with the Al Qaeda ensues after fall of Saddam's gov't. Iraqi insurgency was at its peak between 2004-2007. 2006: Coalition forces begin to focus on a "nation-building" in Afghanistan by establishing Provincial Reconstruction Teams.
Operate primarily in Southern Afghanistan
Consist of a military battalion and civilian advisers who provide assistance to government officials in an area 2008: To continue rooting out Taliban and Al Qaeda, the United States sought for Pakistan to authorize airstrikes on Pakistani soil. However, the Pakistani government disagreed. In September, 4 US attack helicopters entered Pakistani airspace, which Pakistani troops shot down. However, both nations still collaborated in their fight against the Taliban. 2010: Insurgent activity in Afghanistan becomes more prevalent than any other year. United States devises plan of surgically eliminating Taliban and Al Qaeda leaders. 2009-2010: Taliban influence shifts towards northern and western Afghanistan. Number of American troops begins to surge. 2011: United States and other nations in Afghanistan war prepare withdrawal of troops. Now Afghanistan is ours to defend... 2012: US-Afghan relations deteriorate with the occurrence of various high-profile US military incidents. US Army SSG Robert Bales Koran burnings Full withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan will be made as of 2014. In the mean time, foreign troops will remain in Afghanistan as advisers. 2006: American troops successfully capture and execute Saddam Hussein. 2006-2008: Iraq erupts into civil war. Shia Muslims organize into armed groups to fight Sunni Muslims. Newly established Iraqi government with American counterparts provided public security. 2007: President Bush significantly increases the number of American troops in Afghanistan. Role of American troops shifts towards training Iraqi Army in preparation for withdrawal. Late 2011: Last American troops withdraw from Iraq. WHO PULLED THE TRIGGER? WHO HAS ULTIMATE POWER? US OR UN? Without approval of the United Nations, George W. Bush ordered the US invasion of Iraq
George W. Bush violated specific articles in the International Criminal Court's document regarding elements of a war crime:
Article 8 (2) (a) (ii) - 1- War crime of torture
Article 8 (2) (a) (ii) - 2- War crime of inhumane treatment
Bush satisfies both the actus reus and mens rea of the crimes above: ordered for torturing of detainees in attempts to extract information for American logistics
United Nations refused to lay charges against Bush (evident bias) George W. Bush (2001-2008) Barrack Obama (2008-present) A WAR AGAINST ISLAMISM? War on Terror indirectly promoted hatred towards Muslims
In the minds of certain individuals, Islamism equates with terrorism
Responsible for incidents such as 2011 Norway Attacks:
Perpetrator: Anders Brevik, Norwegian far-rightist
Brevik launched attacks on Norwegian parliament building and committed a shooting spree of members of a left-wing party (claimed 77 lives)
Brevik had resentment towards Muslims ELIMINATION OF VERY REAL INTERNATIONAL THREATS Al Qaeda and affiliated groups have been responsible for over 40 terrorist-related incidents (both successful and plotted) across the world since the 9/11 Attacks. FIRST ROUND TO CHAMBER SECOND ROUND TO CHAMBER RESOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Terror
ICC- Elements of a Crime
http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2013/jan/13/university-creates-centre-study-far-right "We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are. They’re in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat." - Donald Rumsfeld (US Secretary of Defense, 2001-2006) United Nations v. Bush