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Foundations: An Introduction to Anatomy

Kimberly Fournier

on 1 September 2013

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Transcript of BIO121-CHP1

Levels of Organization Micro- & Macro-scopic Anatomy Anatomical Landmarks Quadrants & Regions Sectional Anatomy Adapted by Kimberly Fournier, for BIO121, The University of Rhode Island PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett
Southeast Community College, Lincoln, Nebraska Chapter 1-Foundations: An Introduction to Anatomy
*Surgical anatomy: Studies anatomical landmarks
important for surgical procedures

*Radiographic anatomy: The study of anatomical
structures with the use of x-rays or ultrasound
scans on an intact body

*Cross-sectional anatomy: The use of radiographic
techniques (CT and MRI scans) to look at cross
sections of the body Other Perspectives on Anatomy *Developmental anatomy: Examines structural changes
over time

*Embryology: The study of early developmental stages

*Comparative anatomy: Considers different types of

*Clinical anatomy: Focuses on pathological changes during
illness Other Perspectives on Anatomy Macroscopic anatomy
*The study of structures that can be seen without

*Surface anatomy: refers to the superficial
anatomical markings

*Regional anatomy: refers to all structures in a
specific area of the body, whether they are
superficial or deep

*Systemic anatomy: The study of the organ
systems of the body (digestive system,
cardiovascular system, etc.) Microscopic Anatomy Microscopic anatomy
*The study of structures that cannot be seen without

*Cytology—study of cells
*Histology—study of tissues Microscopic Anatomy Anatomy

*The study of external structures
*The study of internal structures
*The study of the relationship between body parts
*The careful observation of the human body Introduction Relative size m to nm Relative size mm to m Relative size m to mm 1.7m 120mm 12mm .5mm 2m 1–12m 10m 120m 10–120nm 11nm 8–10nm 2nm 1nm .1nm  108  107  106  106  106  105  103  103  103  83  20 ( .6) ( .12) ( .15) Transmission electron
microscope Scanning electron
microscope Compound light
microscope Atoms Amino acids DNA (diameter) Proteins Ribosomes Viruses Mitochondrion Bacteria Red blood cell Human oocyte Large protozoan Fingertip (width) Human heart Human Body Unaided human eye From actual to artwork on this page Approximate Magnification (Reduction)
Factor nanometers (nm) micrometers (m) millimeters (mm) meters (m) Size Figure 1.1 The Study of Anatomy at Different Scales *Responsiveness (irritability): A change in activity based
on a stimulus

*Adaptability: Long-term responsiveness

*Growth: The increase in size of an organism

*Differentiation: Becoming specialized to perform
particular functions An Introduction to Organ Systems *Organ System: Combination of various organs make up a
specific system

For example: the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas make up the digestive system

Humans are composed of 11 organ systems Levels of Organization *Cell: The smallest living unit in the body

*Tissue: Many cells and some surrounding material

*Organ: Combination of tissues Levels of Organization *Chemical/Molecular
*Over a dozen elements in the body
*Four of them make up 99% of the body
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen

*Major classes of compounds
Nucleic acids Levels of Organization
*Reproduction: The production of new generations of the
same organism

*Movement: The ability to change the position of

*Metabolism: All the chemical reactions in the body
*Anabolism: the synthesis of complex molecules
*Catabolism: the breakdown of complex molecules An Introduction to Organ Systems Chemical/Molecular (simple)
Organ system
Organism (complex) Levels of Organization Figure 1.3 Composition of the Body at the Chemical Level of Organization Figure 1.4 Levels of Organization Figure 1.7 The Importance of Precise Vocabulary Superficial Anatomy

*Using the proper terms to identify the structures of the body
helps physicians communicate with each other and the patient

*The terms are typically derived from Latin or Greek

Latin or Greek is used because they are descriptive languages The Language of Anatomy The Arm and Hand
Olecranon (cubitis) The Language of Anatomy Torso Region
Lumbus The Language of Anatomy Head and Neck Region
Occipital (posterior head region) The Language of Anatomy Anatomical position

*The hands are at the side
*The palms are facing forward
*All discussion of the human body is in reference to the anatomical position

*Supine: lying down (face up) in the anatomical
*Prone: lying down (face down) in the anatomical
position The Language of Anatomy The Leg and Foot
Hallux The Language of Anatomy The Leg and Foot (continued)
Gluteal cleft (natal cleft)
Gluteal fold
Hallux The Language of Anatomy *Abdominopelvic quadrants and regions

*Anatomists and clinicians use specialized regional
terms to indicate a specific area of concern within the
abdomen or the pelvic regions of the body.

*The abdomen and pelvic regions can be
subdivided into four regions (abdominopelvic

*The abdomen and pelvic regions can be
subdivided into nine regions (abdominopelvic
regions) The Language of Anatomy Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Figure 1.9b Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Figure 1.9a Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Figure 1.10 Directional References Figure 1.12 Sectional Planes and Visualization Sectional Anatomy

*Sagittal cut: separating left and right
*Midsagittal: separating left and right equally
*Parasagittal: separating left and right unequally
*Transverse cut: separating superior and inferior
*Frontal cut: separating anterior and posterior
*Oblique cut: separating the tissue at an angle The Language of Anatomy Sectional Anatomy

*There are many different ways to dissect a piece of tissue
for further study. These are referred to as dissectional cuts
or dissectional planes.

*Sagittal cut (midsagittal and parasagittal)
*Transverse cut
*Frontal cut
*Oblique cut The Language of Anatomy See Table 1.3 Sagittal plane Transverse plane Frontal plane Figure 1.11 Planes of Section Figure 1.13cd Body Cavities Figure 1.13ab Body Cavities Figure 1.14 The Ventral Body Cavity Figure 1.1 The Study of Anatomy at Different Scales Announcements *Quiz 1 in Lab Next week

*Reminder-There are different readings for
lecture and lab

Clinical Notes, and Chp reviews in Textbook

*Read Chapter 2 for next time

*See SI leaders for help PowerPoint® presentation provided by © Pearson Education. Inc.
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