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Transcript of Civil Rights
Brown vs. Board of Education In 1951, Oliver Brown sued the Kansas Board of Education so his 8 year old daughter could attend a white school only. This mainly led to fight against segregation. May 17, 1954-The Supreme Court issued the ruling. The solution was that the "separate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional and ordered desegregation of all public schools. African Americans rejoiced while whites protested. Many people believed that the desegregation solution would lead to violence and chaos. The Ku Klux Klan became more active and on March, 1956 Southern congressional representatives protested the Supreme Court's order. Chapter 21, Civil Rights Groups and Leaders Rosa Parks - December 1955, Rosa Parks was a black seamstress
sat at the front of the bus that was reserved for white passengers.
A white man arrived and the bus driver had ordered Rosa to move
for him, but she didn't. She was threatened several times, but stayed.
When the bus stopped, police seized her to stand trial for violating laws.
Civil rights leaders came up with the idea of the Montgomery bus boycott -
which told African Americans to refuse using the bus until segregation laws
changed. African Americans went along with this, until 1956, when the
Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional. Martin Luther King, Jr. - He was the spokesperson for the Montgomery
bus boycott movement. He became a symbol of nonviolent protest in the
whole world. King got sent to jail often for his beliefs against segregation. He
was attacked by enemies and opponents and in 1968, he was assassinated at
the age of 39. Robert Moses - Member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who
got white and black people involved with helping black register to vote. Like
Martin Luther King, Jr, Moses was also a speaker but more soft and laid back.
Moses increased the growth of the SNCC organization and people started to risk
everything for what they believed in. Other groups included the NAACP, the National Urban League,
CORE, SCLC, and SNCC. Most of these groups helped young African Americans
be aware and prepared for their future. The Violence and Protests What is a sit-in? A sit-in is a technique where a group
of people that are against segregation
sits themselves and refuse to move.
Businesses would usually ignore them
because it would usually start a riot and
disruption in the restaurant. To be involved
in a sit-in was a "badge of honor" and by
the end of 1960, 70,000 students had
participated in sit-ins and 3,600 were sent
to jail. Boynton v. Virginia (1960) The result was that bus station waiting rooms and restaurants could not be segregated as well as schools and on buses. The next year, CORE and SNCC organized 'Freedom Rides' to test whether the Southern states would obey the Supreme Court ruling. The first Freedom Ride was in Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961. Thirteen riders (African American and white Americans) boarded buses heading South. It was only arguments to start, then in Alabama, an armed white mob met the first bus, they slashed tires, broke windows, and threw firebombs into the bus. Local policeman were even involved in the mob attack. All riders had escaped before the fire spread but the mob beat them when they stepped off the bus. The project had ended. "Ole Miss" In 1961, an African American Air Force veteran, James Meredith wanted to transfer to the (all white) University of Mississippi. When he got rejected the NAACP filed that it was because of racism. First The Governor got involved, then President Kennedy. Kennedy sent marshals to accompany Meredith to campus but violence erupted. Two people were killed and hundreds hurt. John F. Kennedy - Inspiring to African Americans and won most of their votes. He
proposed a civil rights bill that prohibited segregation in public, ban discrimination, and
advance school desegregation. Southern segregationists in Congress held the bill from
coming up for votes. -Kennedy's bill lead the March on Washington in 1963. The March on Washington was when more than 200,000 people came from all over the country to look for jobs and freedom. At this march, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his best-known address..."I Have a Dream". Three months later President Kennedy was assassinated. Lyndon Johnson - He was the new president after the assassination of
Kennedy. He used his political skills and sympathy to pass Kennedy's bill. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Section 1 - banned the use of different voter registration standards for black and white.
Section 2 - prohibited discrimination in public accommodations, such as motels, restaurants, gas stations, theaters, and sports arenas.
Section 3 - allowed withholding of federal funds from public or private programs that practice discrimination.
Section 4 - banned the discrimination by race, sex, religion, and origin by employers. Also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, to investigate charges of job discrimination) Malcolm X - Was involed in the Nation of Islam (a group called
the Black Muslims preaching black separation and self-help). He
helped spread the message of black nationalism and inspired many
young African Americans. The Final Solution The changes that the Civil Right Movement made took a while to fully activate. Between 1970-1975 the African Americans elected in office rose 88 percent. This movement changed African Americans whole view of political life.