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Crash Course NC History
Transcript of Crash Course NC History
North Carolina History Let's start with Geography NC Has 3 distinct Geographic Regions The Mountain region lies on the western edge of the state and is the smallest region.
It is rich in natural resources such as Granite and mineral resources. The Piedmont (foot of the mountain) is the largest region of NC. The Piedmont contributes significantly to NC's manufacturing, business, and medical industries. The Piedmont is home to Charlotte, the state's largest city. The Piedmont is also home to Raleigh, our Capitol. The Capitol is named after Sir Walter Raleigh the English nobleman that personally funded the early colonization of the area we now call NC The Coastal Plain has soil that is well suited to agriculture and is primarily flat. The Coastal Plain has two sub-regions, the Tidewater and the Outer Banks Rivers and streams in the Tidewater rise and fall with the tides of the Atlantic Ocean You are here. The Outer Banks are a series of barrier islands off the coast of NC. They help protect the mainland of NC from powerful storms like Hurricanes and Noreasters. The Outer Banks has earned the nickname "the Graveyard of the Atlantic" due to the high number of shipwrecks near the islands. Let's talk about the Native Americans... During the Ice Age, enough water was trapped in glaciers to allow a land bridge to form between Asia and North America. We call this exposed land "Beringia," named after the modern day Bering Strait. Ice Age Hunters followed herds of mammoth and antelope into North America, eventually spreading throughout all of North and South America NC was home to three main Native American Language Groups First tribe encountered by Europeans. Fierce Raiders and Warriors Part of a large network of tribes that stretched through NC, SC, and Georgia. NC Native Americans did not live in TeePees! NC Native Americans lived in "Longhouses" created by attaching the bark of the Birch tree (or other similar trees) to a lightweight timber frame. Timber Frame Birch Covering The Native Americans of NC were part
of the "Eastern Woodlands" Cultural Group
which includes tribes such as the Cherokee
and Iroquois tribes. Let's move on to Colonization: After the discovery of the "New World" by Columbus in 1492, Europeans had three main reasons to try to "Colonize" the New World. God:
Many Europeans wanted to settle in the New World in order to spread the Christian faith; others were seeking the freedom to practice their religion however they wanted. Gold:
Other Europeans had seen the riches plundered by the Spanish and wanted a piece for themselves. Glory:
Many brave adventurers and explorers wanted to seek out new territory and discover the hidden wonders of the newly discovered continent. So who tried to Colonize NC? Sir Walter Raleigh funded three attempts to settle on Roanoke Island NC. All three attempts met with failure due to the following reasons:
Poor planning/incompetent leadership.
Poor relations with nearby Native Americans.
Failure to bring ample supplies. After the initial failures to settle NC, people from many backgrounds began to trickle into the area from other successful colonies. Scotch-Irish and Germans settled most of the Piedmont and Mountain Regions Moravians, a religious group from Moravia (a part of Germany) settled in the northern Piedmont and founded the towns of Salem and Bethabara. The peoples that settled the area near New Bern were originally from Switzerland and named their town after the capital of their homeland Some people were forced to migrate to North Carolina against their will. Africans were imported to work on the plantations of NC's Coastal Plain. Now , let's fight for Independence During the late 1700's, England found itself wrapped in a conflict with France all over the world. Versus The English and French also fought over control over territory in North America. This conflict was known as the "French and Indian War." Native Americans fought on both sides, but most of the Natives sided with the friendlier French The English eventually won, but the war was very expensive. In order to pay for the extremely expensive conflict, the King of England began to create new taxes in the American Colonies. Sugar act-Tax on all items that contained Sugar
Stamp Act-A special tax on printed materials and official documents.
Townshend Acts-A tax on tea and other luxury goods. (Townshend=Tea) Taxes weren't the only thing that angered Colonists.
Quartering Act-Forced colonists to house and feed British Soldiers
Boston Massacre-British soldiers fired into a crowd of angry colonists killing 5. During the American Revolution, North Carolina helped in many ways:
Provided troops and supplies.
Many plantations grew crops to provide food and clothing for the war effort. The "Overmountain Men" soundly defeat the British, killing all but a handful. NC and SC militias attack Cornwallis while he is trying to regroup, forcing him to retreat. American troops fighting for Nathanial Greene defeat the British led by Lord Cornwallis. The British are forced to retreat to Yorktown VA. where they are finally defeated once and for all. Verily My Tail
was kicked Now on to the "Dismal Time" The early 1800's NC found itself in a sad state of affairs. Before the American Revolution, NC had been a really awesome place to be. But after the war NC lagged behind in areas such as:
Infrastructure (roads and waterways)
Other states noticed how "backward" conditions were in North Carolina. Many newspapers commented on how it seemed like our state was asleep, letting the rest of the world pass us by. The sleep of NC earned us the nickname the "Rip Van Winkle State. RVW was the story of a man who went hunting and fell into a magical twenty year sleep. When RVW woke up, it seemed like the world had passed him by. So how was NC going to get itself out of it's Rip Van Winkle reputation?