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Indian Removal Act/ Trail of Tears

The Trail Where They Cried

Shelly Mitchell

on 22 August 2012

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Transcript of Indian Removal Act/ Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears INDIAN REMOVAL IN THE UNITED STATES Inevitably this movement led to clashes over land. Remember the
Proclamation of 1763? This proclamation forbade settlement west of the Appalachians in hopes of eliminating conflict between the colonists and the Native Americans living in the Ohio River Valley. By the time Andrew Jackson became President in 1829, the population of American
Indians east of the Mississippi River had dwindled to 125,000. In contrast, the non-Indian population had risen to 13 million. Jackson felt that removing the Indians from their land would be an opportunity to provide for the needs of the white farmers and businessmen. He also claimed that removal was in the best interest of the Indians. Here is what President Jackson said to the Indians: "Where you now are, you and my white children is too near to each other to live in harmony and peace. Your game is gone, and many of your peoples will not work and till the earth....The land beyond the Mississippi belongs to the President and no one else, and he will give it to you FOREVER." Many members of the "Five Civilized Tribes"
(Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole) wanted to stay in their lands east of the Mississippi River. Began to receive formal education Had a Written Language Established a newspaper (Cherokee Phoenix) Adopted the white man's idea of slavery and plantations. The Supreme Court and Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of the Chrokee nation. The ruling recognized the sovereign (politically independent) status of tribes. States did not have jurisdiction to pass laws regulating activities on Indian lands located within their state boundaries. The case was called Worcester vs. Georgia, and the Cherokee sued the government of Georgia for taking their land.. Georgia ignored the court's ruling. President Jackson backed Georgia and refused to enforce the Supreme Court's ruling.
He remarked, "Well, John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it." In 1838, the Georgia militia was ordered to force the Cherokee Nation out of Georgia. 17,000 Cherokees were brutally rounded up and marched to Indian territory in Oklahoma. What is the job of the Supreme Court? What is the job of the President? If a President's job is to carry out laws determined by the Supreme Court....What should happen if he refuses to do his job? Remember
Separation of Powers? In 1828, gold was found
on Cherokee land. General Winfield Scott, and the US Army, came to move the Cherokee. They would walk from their home, and the home of their ancestors before them, all the way to a reservation in Oklahoma. Naturally, many Cherokee ran away, unwilling to walk with their white enemies. Some of those who tried to escape were caught. Others made it to freedom. Those who did not escape had to travel. Snow fell and the wind whistled. They still had to walk, so they did. They walked all day and slept in the open all night. Many got sick on the long walk. If they couldn’t keep up, they were left to die. The elders were no longer fit for such a walk. If a Cherokee was slowing them down, they were often shot. Roughly 4,000 of the 17,000 Cherokee who started on the journey, died from horrible conditions, illness, and starvation. This long and terrible walk was known by those who experienced it as The Trail Where They Cried.
The journey is
more commonly
known as The
Trail Of Tears. The symbol of the trail is the Cherokee Rose, now also the official state flower of Georgia. Transcript of President Andrew Jackson's Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830) Native Americans occupied what is now North and South America long before Europeans came to the Western Hemisphere. In the 16th century, Spanish explorers and conquistadors concentrated on the western coasts of North and South America. As the population grew, the colonists pushed farther west into the territories occupied by the American Indians. While the Spanish also explored Florida and the Mississippi River area, ..... The Colonies eventually broke from Great Britain And Became the United States of America http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=EE601B9F-E7FB-47C3-ACC5-C54D6B8DDC2D Discovery Education Video How did the Five Civilized Tribes Try to avoid removal? Adopted a farming lifestyle Carry out the nations
laws and policies Hears cases and determines what is right based on the constitution. Impeach Most of the East
Coast was explored
and settled by a
variety of other
European countries
...primarily England. What do you think of when you think of Native Americans in the early 1800s? Spanish Exploration Spanish Exploration How many people do you
think live in the
United States of America
today??? Despite popular folklore, the Cherokee actually lived in cabins made of logs instead of the stereotypical TeePee. They began to dress more European and even adopted many of the white man's farming and building methods. Most of the Native American leaders were convinced that to survive they would have to adopt white ways. These tribes became known as the Five Civilized Tribes. None of that made any difference to the state of Georgia. To them, the Cherokee were still "savages" who had too much land. (not to mention gold) In 1802, Georgia had ceded, or legally given up, its claim to land west of the Appalachian Mountains to the federal government in exchange for a promise to move the Cherokee out of Georgia. When Congress passed the
Indian Removal Act of 1830,
all of the 5 civilized tribes
except the Cherokees gave
up and moved west to the
Arkansas Territory. But the Cherokee decided to fight back politically and legally. John Ross had become Principal Chief in 1828. He was a mixed-blood Cherokee. He spoke English and learned the law, and between 1830 and 1838 made many trips to Washington to plead the tribe's case to stay in their original homelands. He found little support in Congress or the White House, so the Cherokee turned to the U.S. Supreme Court for remedy. That the state of Georgia had no legal authority to pass laws concerning the Cherokee Nation, a nation recognized through treaties with the United States. Cherokee Nation said: Why wasn't
Andrew Jackson
impeached? Andrew Jackson did exactly what the white population wanted him to do. They adored him. Jackson symbolized what Americans wished themselves to be--defiant, bold, independent. He was someone with whom they could identify. With the whole country backing him, Jackson was not only NOT IMPEACHED...he was re-elected by an overwhelming majority. How can he do that? Doesn't that mean he has to do what the Supreme court says????????? Remember Marbury vs. Madison? The court has the right to decide if a law is constitutional. It is the SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND. Let's review 1513 Ponce Deleon
lands in Florida 1606 Jamestown Virginia
is founded by colonists of the
London Company. 1620 The Mayflower lands
at Plymouth, Mass. ... including the Indian Removal Act, Analyze the reasons for the removal and resettlement of Cherokee Indians during the Jacksonian Era, ... and the Trail of Tears. ...Worcester v. Georgia, 13,000,000 : 125,000 104 :1 Whites / Native American The white settlers wanted the Native Americans removed so they could farm the rich land and dig for gold. Glogster dfkdkl One Two (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
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