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An Atomic History of the Universe

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Alexis Barajas

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of An Atomic History of the Universe

Open Universe This a model of the open universe,which expands forever. Closed Universe A closed universe contains enough mass to halt the expansion, and eventually collapses. Flat Universe This Universe has just enough matter for its gravitational force to bring the expansion associated with the big bang to a stop. This resulting universe is stable in both size and shape. Why is the universe expanding ? A star starts out as a nebula which is a cloud of hydrogen gas. The star is then born, made of helium and hydrogen, it produces light through nuclear reactions or nuclear fusion. The next stage is a supernova. There are two types: the first is when gas from another star reaches a white dwarf causing it to explode; while the second is when a star ten times larger than our sun undergoes stray nuclear reactions and eventually explodes due to the pressure of its own gravity. When the type two supernova explodes, it can leave behind a neutron star or black hole. The solar system and planets formed at the same time. If the mass of a neutron star increases, it will have so much gravity that it shrinks into itself and becomes a black hole. The gravitational pull of a black hole is the strongest there is, it is so strong that not even light can escape from it. Flawed Illustrations
Newton realized that the motion of the planets and moon could be used by his law of universal gravitation. When a supernova goes off it releases energy with such force that it moves almost at the speed of light. Because of this we can only see a supernova an instant before the energy from one reaches us. Any two objects attract each other with a force equal to the product of their masses divided by the square of their separation times a constant of proportionality. Newton estimated this constant of proportionality called G perhaps from the gravitational acceleration of the falling apple and an inspired guess for the average density of the Earth. There are several radioactive decay series used to cross check the dates on individual samples, then the ages of the samples are compared to each other. They ALL confirm that the Earth AND solar system is 4.5 to 4.6 million years old. A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth or another planet. Venus becomes visible against the solar disk. The duration of a Transit is measured in hours We can see Venus move across the face of the sun as a small black disk. Great scientific importance helps us find distance from Earth to the sun and the galaxy in general. Uses parallax method and Kepler's third law The problem with most of the methods was that they were too complex. Most of these techniques have been examined in the scientific literature and found to be useless for determining an age of the earth. We make precise observations of the different durations of the transit when viewed from widely separated points on the Earth's surface C14 has a half life of 5730 years and is only good to date objects to 50,000 years or so. If a star is large enough (about 8x the size of our sun) then the core may fuse into iron. When this happens the sun becomes unable to fuse further. Without the energy from the fusion the star collapses from its own gravity. This creates one final, incredibly volatile fusion reaction. The force is so strong it overcomes the pull of gravity and releases all the energy from the star in an instant. - Scientists measure distances relatively close objects about 100 light years away, using a method called "parallax". Parallax is the apparent change in position when you look at it two different views. For interstellar distances, using the parallax method, two different views correspond with two different places on Earth of our planet's orbit. The parallax method fails when trying to measure the distance to stars and galaxies that are 100.000 light years away. Triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly. The coordinates and distance to a point can be found by calculating the length of one side of a triangle, given measurements of angles and sides of the triangle formed by that point and two other known reference points. Dark matter might also consist of tiny, never-before-seen particles, such as those that may have been produced in the moments after the big bang. Astronomers like to call these elusive bits of matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Macho's are extremely dense, non luminous bodies, which emits little or no radiation such as brown dwarfs, which are smaller than stars but bigger than planets. They refer to these objects as Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects. Astronomers continue to search for the object or objects that would explain dark matter. The speed of light is essentially the speed limit of the universe. The main difference being that breaking a street speed limit means you get a ticket and a fine, while breaking the speed of light means you probably don't actually exist. It is functionally impossible to go faster than the speed of light. You've probably heard of a 'light-year'. Despite what the name would imply, a light-year is actually a measure of distance, not time. It refers to the maximum distance a ray of light could travel in one year if it was completely uninterrupted and traveling through a vacuum. The speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. A light year is 9.4605284 x 10^15 meters We generally measure distances in space using Astronomical Units (AU). One astronomical unit is equal to the distance between the Earth and the Sun, 149,597,871 kilometers. One difficulty we have is that it takes a lot of time for light to travel for us to even see it. So we are looking at things that are thousands of years old because it takes so much time to travel. Another difficulty we have is that for light to travel to us, there has to be lot's of it. For example: Pretend you are in a flat field that is a mile long and and have a flash light. The power of that flashlight isn't strong enough to reach the other end of the field maybe it'll reach 20 feet. Same goes for light in space, the light has to be strong enough for us to see it. Dark matter makes up 85% of the universe. We don't know what it is they have so many theories and so little proof, dark matter remains a mystery to us. For example black rocks that reflect no light don't show up through a telescope so it is considered dark matter. Alvarez Hypothesis NEOs How likely is it that an asteroid of
significant size will hit the earth? Scientist Walter Alvarez and his son Luis first suggested the “Alvarez Hypothesis”, which was the foundation for The Cretaceous-Paleogene event.

They believe the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs fell in the Yucatan Peninsula, in Mexico.
They discovered that this region had a concentration of iridium 100’s of times greater than any other area. Did you know that our universe cannot be contained in one tiny picture? It's so vast. We live in a universe that's always expanding and that's never-ending. The exact differences between planets and stars from each other cannot be made to scale in pictures. We could get close but as you know, planets shift because of their orbit. WRONG!!! WRONG!!! WRONG!!! WRONG!!! WRONG!!! WRONG!!! In a finite universe, space is curved so that if you could travel billions of light years in a straight line you would eventually finish back where you started. It is also possible that our universe is infinite. In both examples, groups of galaxies completely fill the universe and are moving apart at all points making the universe expand. WE ARE TINIER THAN
THE TINIEST PARTICLE
IN THIS WACKY SPLAT
OF RANDOMNESS No matter how hard you may try, you will not be able to understand just how tiny a proton is. It is just WAY too small. A proton is a part of a atom, which itself is already a small thing. Protons are so small, that the dot on this "i" can hold around 500,000,000,000 of them. More than the number of seconds contained in half a million years. So, you could say, protons are extremely microscopic. Now, imagine if you could shrink (and of course you can't) those protons down to a billionth of its normal size into a space so small, that it would make a proton look enormous. Now pack into that tiny, tiny space about an ounce of matter. I'm assuming that you wish to build an inflationary universe like the one shown in this picture: If you would prefer instead to build a more old-fashioned, standard Big Bang universe, you'll need additional materials. You will need to gather up everything there is -- every last molecule and particle of matter between here and the edge of creation-- and squeeze it into a spot so infinitesimally compact that it has NO dimensions at all. This, is known as a singularity. Comparison of the Planets Aliens. Where are they? What are they?


They are right here. They are you.













































. Our solar system's planets can never be drawn to scale with the sun in the picture. Comparing the distance from the sun to the distance to the planets. askdjfsd Callum home Kameron's Home Josh's Crib Certain organizations have the role of tracking asteroids, or as they call them, NEOs (Near Earth Objects).

They track space objects, and focus on objects more than 10 km across (called “extinction class”).
They determined the best way to prevent armageddon is to “conduct a series of standoff nuclear explosions to push the NEO off course.” Shoemaker/Levy 9 (Comet) was a string of comets that collided with Jupiter in 1994. It was popular with the media because it was the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial impact. It was discovered by scientists Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker, and David Levy. NASA has discovered 5 planets outside our Solar System. The new worlds, called exoplanets, are all bigger than Neptune.
The exoplanets are named Kepler 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b and 8b. While the ultimate fate of the universe depends on its overall shape, there are different kinds of shapes that a universe can be: open, closed, or flat. The smallest being 4 times the size of Earth. An Example:
Alien life may exist on Saturn's moon Enceladus.

They orbit closely around their stars. Following orbits that range from about 3.2 to 4.9 days Cavendish and co-workers obtained a value accurate to about 1%. When asked why he measured G his response was "weighing the earth". Once G is known the mass of the Earth can be obtained from the 9.8 m/s2 gravitational acceleration on the earth surface and the sun's mass can be obtained from the size and period of the earth orbit around the sun. You are now ready to start a universe... Why is the earth inhabitable while the other planets aren't? It’s been theorized that an asteroid only a half-mile in diameter could destroy civilization on Earth
There are three types of asteroids: Main Belt Asteroids- are the ones revolving around the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Theory has it these asteroids – millions of them, in fact - are the remnants of a proto-planetary disk that didn’t quite come together as a planet. Trojan Asteroids- follow planets around but rarely collide with them. The most common Trojans are the ones that follow Jupiter. Near-Earth Asteroids- (NEAs) are the ones we should worry about. These potential killers have orbits that take them near the Earth; some even cross the orbit of the planet. These are known as Earth-crossers. The star then lives it's life like normal, but toward the end of a star like the sun or when it’s starting to run out of hydrogen at its center, it swells into a red giant, or for big stars, a Super Giant. They then become white dwarfs, which have the mass of the sun but are less than 1% its size. A neutron star is a star composed mainly of neutrons and it is three times as dense as the sun but only 20km in diameter. With each sun, there is that perfect zone that is the right distance to allow for planets to support life. Earth is the perfect distance away from the Sun which is why our planet easily supports life. Mars and Venus are just outside the habitable zone and do not have stable enough conditions to support life. Is there a possibility of aliens in our universe? Karina's Home Daniela's Home What is Dark Matter? You've heard of it before, but what is it? Shoemaker was the first person to prove that asteroids have hit the earth in the past, a new idea at the time. 21 separate impacts were observed. The biggest impact was July 18th, when a monumental rock struck Jupiter’s southern hemisphere that
created a crater 12,000 Km across, with an impact 600x the world’s entire nuclear arsenal. M.A.C.H.Os and W.I.M.Ps explain the presence of dark matter in the universe Another Example: The mass and Diameter of Earth Newton realized that the motion of the planets and moon could be calculated by his Law of Universal Gravitation Two objects that attract each other with a force equal to their combined masses divided by the square of their separation times a constant of proportionality Newton estimated this constant of proportionality, perhaps from the gravitational acceleration of the falling apple inspired a guess for the average density of the Earth. Cavendish and coworkers obtained a value accurate to within 1%. This was his way of weighing the Earth. Once G is known the mass of the Earth surface and the Sun's mass can be obtained from the size and period of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The Distance From The Earth To The Sun (Transit of Venus) Data from the Cassini probe has analyzed the chemicals on the surface of Titan, which experts say is the only moon around the planet to have a dense atmosphere. A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when Venus passes directly between the Sun and Earth, becoming visible against the solar disk. The duration of a Transit is measured in hours. We see Venus move across the face of the Sun as a small black disk Understanding the distance between the Earth and our Sun is of great scientific importance; it allows us to calculate distances between any two points in our solar system. Scientists use the Parallax Method and Kepler's Third Law to determine the distance The technique: Making precise observations of the different durations of the Transit when viewed from widely separated points on Earth's surface How We Use Stars to Calculate Distance in Space Astronomers measure distance to relatively close objects (<100 light years away) by using a method called "parallax". Parallax is the apparent change in position when you look at the same star from two different views. For interstellar distances, using the parallax method, two difference views correspond with two difference places on Earth of two different measures of our Planet's orbit. The parallax method fails when trying to measure the distance to stars and galaxies (>100,000 light years away) Edwin Hubble came up with the "standard candles" method Basic Principles of Triangulation To Determine The Height of Unknown Object Triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly The coordinates and distance to a point an be found by calculating the length of one side of a triangle, given measurements of angles and sides of the triangle formed by that point and two other known reference points NASA suggests that life forms may have been breathing in the planet’s atmosphere and also feeding on its surface fuel. In the end, despite knowing all of this... We have yet to see them. Despite us knowing ALL of this... Hydrogen gas flowing throughout the planet’s atmosphere disappeared at the surface. This suggests that alien life forms could in fact breathe. There is a lack of the chemicals on the surface. Scientists were then led to believe it had been possibly consumed by life. TITAN We really know close to nothing at all about this vast universe of ours... Luckily, the probability of other intelligent life existing in the universe is very low. We know this because of Drake's Equation.
An equation used to determine the probability
of alien life existing in our universe. These are the fragments of the comet, taken in 1994. This equation also provides us with
the knowledge that if there is alien life,
it's most likely an alien species of bacteria
or some kind of insect. Iridium is a very dense and rare metal. Most of
it is melted into the earth's core, which is why they think this was the impact site The asteroid was likely to have been about 6 km
across.

They dicovered this to be the most likely theory,
ruling out other possible explanations for why the
dinosaurs disappeared
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