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Human Inheritance and Genetic Disorders
Transcript of Human Inheritance and Genetic Disorders
from the DNA. have alleles that pass from parent to child on a sex chromosome. These alleles for these genes are found on the "X" or "Y" chromosomes. QUICK REVIEW Genetic Disorders Pedigrees Every living organism is controlled by it's DNA, which is tightly bound in strands called inside the nucleus of each cell. A is an abnormal condition that a person inherits through their genes. A is a chart or "family tree"
which maps genetic disorders in a family. Human Inheritance and Genetic Disorders 7th Grade Life Sciences: Chapters 6.1 and 6.2 WARM UP! Below is an actual photo of a person's set of chromosomes. Use the photo to answer the following questions: How many chromosomes does every human have? How many chromosomes does the person in the photo above have? What might have caused this extra chromosome? (HINT: It happens during meiosis) How do you this might affect the person? predict Each individual trait or of an organism is controlled by a which is part of a chromosome. Each gene is controlled by two ; one from mom and one from dad. Genes tell the body how to make certain which form proteins. control how an organism looks and functions. chromosomes characteristic gene alleles amino acids Proteins Some traits are controlled by just one gene (two alleles). An example would be the widow's peak Other traits are controlled by
, which are three or four forms of a gene that code for a single trait. An example of this is our . multiple alleles blood type Still, there are other traits that are controlled
by . Examples include:
skin type, eye color, hair color, and many more. multiple genes Sex Chromosomes are 1 pair of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the body. They carry the genes that makes a person or . male female Sex Chromosomes what are the sex chromosomes for a male? for a female? The "Y" chromosome is much than the "X" chromosome. Because the "X" is bigger, it carries a lot more than the "Y". smaller genetic information Sex-Linked Genes Common Sex-Linked Genes is a common sex-linked gene. The alleles for colorblindness is found on the "X" chromosome. Color Blindness Since the gene for color blindness is only on the
, a male will automatically get the trait for color blindness if he inherits a
recessive X and a Y. c "X" chromosome Females can be of the disorder, if they have a dominant X and one recessive
X . For a female to get color blindness, she
must have both recessive: X X . C c c c carrier A carrier is a person who has one
and one allele for the trait. recessive dominant Environment makes a difference! also determine how genes are expressed. For example: - a person can have genes to be really tall, but if they do
not have proper nutrition, they will not reach their
optimal height. Environmental Factors - a person can have genes which wire the brain to be good
at making music, but if they never try to play an
instrument, they will never know! genetic disorder Genetic disorders can be caused by either a in the DNA, or an or chromosome. change extra missing CYSTIC FIBROSIS Cystic Fibrosis is a disorder in which the body produces abnormally thick in the lungs. mucus recessive removed SICKLE-CELL DISEASE is where a person's blood cells are shaped differently. The shape of blood causes it to in vessels causing blockages, and it carries less
. Sickle Cell Disease "sickle" clot oxygen The allele for the disease is
with the normal allele. codominant A person with one recessive and one dominant allele will produce normal and sickle blood cells. A person with recessive alleles will produce only
blood cells. half half two sickle HEMOPHILIA Hemophilia is a disorder that blood clotting. prevents It is a recessive disorder, found on the
It is dangerous because even small wounds can cause unnecessary bleeding and even death through blood loss. sex-linked DOWN SYNDROME is a disorder which causes some degree of mental retardation and physical abnormalities. Down Syndrome This occurs when chromosomes fail to
during . It is caused by an copy of chromosome 21.
Instead of having two copies, those with Down syndrome have copies of the chromosome. extra three separate meiosis pedigree Karyotypes A is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. karyotype A karyotype can determine if any
are present. A couple who wishes to have children can receive . genetic disorders genetic counseling Genetic counselors use karyotypes, pedigree
charts and Punnett squares, to help
them in their work.