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3D Bioprinting

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Kayla Blades

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of 3D Bioprinting

Known as additive manufacturing

In 3D BioPrinting, successive layer-by-layer precise positioning of biological materials is used to grow a 3D functional construct for clinical restoration of tissues and organs.

3D BioPrinting:
The effects, uses, and yields of regenerative healthcare

There are two main techniques that make up 3-D BioPrinting:
- Inkjet Bioprinting
- Microextrusion

How Does BioPrinting Work?
Tissue/Organ BioPrinting Strategies
Medical uses/Applications for 3D printing, both actual and potential, can be organized into several broad categories, including:

Tissue and organ fabrication;
Creation of customized prosthetics
Implants, and anatomical models
Pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms, delivery, and discovery.
Applications of 3D Bio-Printing
Ethical Concerns
Scaffolds can introduce foreign material
Because such advanced software is not yet available, we can't manipulate the structure or see the layout of cells before printing.
The nozzles that dispense the cells can become clogged if too many cells are printed at once
The printer can overheat and end up killing cells
Mechanical Problems
What is 3D BioPrinting?
of Bioprinting on the Healthcare Industry
Printing the Future
Inkjet BioPrinting
- Inkjet printers (also known as drop-on-demand printers) are the most commonly used type of printer.

- Controlled volumes of liquid are delivered to predefined locations. The ink in the cartridge is replaced with a biological material, and the paper replaced with an electronically controlled elevator stage.

- Inkjet printers use thermal or acoustic forces to eject drops of liquid onto a substrate, which can support or form part of the final construct.

Today, Inkjet Bioprinting is used for regenerating skin, cartilage, bone tissue, and primary basic cells.
Our bodies can naturally regenerate but they can only do things like paper cuts, not any big wounds. By 3D printing certain cells you can trick your body into thinking a big wound is a paper cut so it will regenerate itself.
Pharmaceutical testing:
By 3D printing body parts, cells, tissues or organs you can test drugs so you have more precise data before starting human testing.
Situ printing:
Situ printing is basically just replacing the middle man so instead of printing tissue then surgically inserting it you can print it directly where it needs to go on the body.
Cosmetic applications
Cosmetically you can print something on your body to look different. For example, you could design a new face and print it on yourself.
3D printing may be used in many different ways, for example, organs and tissues for ill or disabled people.

But researchers are thinking about creating ways to help more people.

For example...
Synthetically Replacing the Eyes
Organ, tissue and vascular tube printing:
If you take biopaper gel and insert bioink spheroids into the gel, then compile additional layers as needed you will be able to print organs, tissue and vascular tubes. While in the biopaper gel the bioink will slowly start to fuse together and eventually the biopaper will dissolve and leave behind the desired product.
Bone Printing:
A 3D bioprinter will create a scaffold in the shape of the desired bone the covers it with somatic stem cells. The bioink used in this process contains the polymer, polylactic acid, and a gel called alginate. The polylactic acid creates the hardness similar to that of bone and the alginate is a coushioning material for the cells. Then when implanted the scaffold will degrade and be replaced by bone in a span of 3 months.
Skin Printing:
The bioink in skin printing contains two different skin cells. The wound is then scanned for size and depth to put the appropriate skin cells at each depth to create the skin.
The repairing of nerves is very complex and has not yet been accomplished but there have been successful studies about using 3D printing to guide nerves to reconnect properly and more efficiently.
3D BioPrinting is a difficult technology to find compatible materials, as many of the materials can be controversial.

- Embryonic stem cells
- Adult stem cells(found in bone marrow)
- Perenatal stem cells
-Mensenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)
- Naturally derived polymers (including alginate, gelatin, collagen, chitosan, fibrin and hyaluronic acid, often isolated from animal or human tissues)
- Synthetic molecules (polyethylene glycol)
-Carbon Fibers
How would it work?
Needle -> Drop different types of stem cells -> Alignment and Structure.

EYE HEAL cures sight disease by replacing the standard eye functionality.
EYE ENHANCE sharpens sight (hyper-retina).
Filters (vintage, black and white, ...) by EYE pills.
Record and Wi-Fi.
Complex but also presents problems:
Eye infections, vision loss, irregular cornea (causing astigmatism), cataracts, and others.
285 M people are estimated to be visually impaired (worldwide)
Enhance Your Eye (EYE)
Microextrusion bioprinters are some of the most common 3D Printers. They also have the ability to produce organs with more cell density.

- Microextrusion printers function with extrusion of a material, which is deposited onto a substrate by a microextrusion head.

- Microextrusion is used for organ and tissue regeneration, as well as aortic valves and vascular trees.
BioPrinting For Practice
Printing organs:
Stanford breeded mice with livers made of human cells.
To help on the research of pharmacies
With tumors, so that students may practice
A 2 year old girl received a windpipe made of plastic fibers and her own stem cells
7 year old Porter had an old, heavy, prostethic arm that was replaced with a new, lighter, 3D-printed one
Amanda Boxtell was given a 3D printed bioskeleton, which helped her walk again
Dr. Madsen 3D printed a brain to practice a hemispherectomy
Organ, tissue and vascular tube printing:
Decrease of organ transplant wait list and diseased organs and tissues.
Decrease in people with diseases of organs, tissues and vascular tubes
Bone Printing:
Decrease in amputations
Decrease in bone loss
Skin Printing:
Decreased infections
Decrease in dermatological disorders
Decreased in population of handicapped and paralyzed people
Decrease in scarring
Decrease in healing time
Decrease in infection
Pharmaceutical Testing:
Decreased side effects
Decreased human testing
Situ Printing:
Shorter surgical times
Cosmetic Applications:
More exact cosmetic surgeries
Thanks For Watching
Social Injustice: Rich vs. Poor
Performance Enhancement
Enviornmental Concerns

Caroline Wang,
Helena Vasconcellos,
Julia Lang,
Kayla Blades
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