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Human-computer interaction (HCI) considerations when implementing healthcare technologies
Transcript of Human-computer interaction (HCI) considerations when implementing healthcare technologies
To define Human-computer Interaction (HCI)
To provide examples of HCI in healthcare
To explain how design of HCI improves implementation
To explore considerations when implementing healthcare technologies
Examples of HCI in healthcare
A website for the communication of existing guidelines
A personal assistant that helps diabetics make healthy choices
Electronic medical and laboratory records
Computerized drug and supply dispensing, electronic ordering and replenishment
Automated patient flow management
Techniques and devices for assessing user state ~ eye tracking, facial expression recognition, wearable computers such as earrings collecting physiological data (Hudlicka, E., 2003)
Robots and avatars interacting with autistic children to work on social skills
Design of HCI to improve implementation
Users must be an early and continuous focus
Design process should be iterative, allowing for evaluation and correction
Formal evaluation should take place using rigorous experimental and qualitative methods (McGonigle, D., & Garver Mastrain, K., 2012)
What is Human-computer interaction (HCI)?
HCI is a term used to refer to the understanding and designing of different relationships between people and computers.
At the outset, in the late 1970s, the main concern of HCI was 'usability'. Since then HCI has focused on developing and applying design and evaluation methods to ensure that technologies are easy to learn and easy to use.
Recently, HCI has begun to develop techniques for inventing things that are not just usable but useful. HCI has also begun investigating the relationships between people and within social groups (ed. Harper, R., et al., 2008).
The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in user interface and HCI technologies and methods (Hudlicka, E., 2003). Technology must support and enhance people. Medicine and Healthcare in particular are currently subject to rapid technology change (ed. Holzinger, A., 2010).
Traditionally, HCI bridges Psychology and Informatics, while Usability Engineering, is anchored in software technology thus enabling appropriate technological implementation (ed. Holzinger, A., 2010).
HCI made simple
Design of interfaces must be based on the analysis of:
Used by who?
In which way and form?
In which context?
Of which purpose?
Integration of systems
Communication and collaboration
Sandblad, B., 2012
HCI in use: a working example
The challenge of aging populations for HCI
HCI is being challenged to design technologies for older people living independently. A bed occupancy sensor is one example. It takes information from a clock and pressure pad and can infer that a client has got out of bed at a time that they normally are sleeping. It can be used to switch on bathroom lights, to help guide them, thus preventing falls.
Imagine a scenario where a daughter can text a request for information about her elderly parent who is slightly demented and has a history of leaving the home at inappropriate times. A message could be sent back to her saying that her parent " has been in bed since 10:30" and know that she will receive a text if mom leaves the bed for longer than 20 minutes before a prearranged time (Blythe, M.A., et al., 2005).
Monitoring systems are designed to provide confidence: for the client, that if they fall they can get help; for the relatives that the client is safe, and for the health and social services responsible for their health.
Obstacles for implementation
Identification of health information and knowledge
ie. the differential use and manipulation of nursing information by nurses with differing practice levels compound this obstacle (Courtney, K.L., et al., 2008)
Attributes of the individual end users
ie. computer anxiety, motivation
Attributes of the technology
Attributes of the clinical tasks and processes that the application introduces or affects tasks
ie. task complexity
Communication between users and designers is critical to success
User participation in the design and development of HCI increases the likelihood of successful implementation and utilization
Involvement of end users in the design and implementation of a system will result in increased user satisfaction, and an increase in the perception of usefulness of the application by the end user
Staff with an aptitude for the system can serve as preceptors or "power users" for their place of work
Provide feedback on anticipated workflow issues as a result of implementation such as need for increased staffing levels at first
Provide and receive feedback on placement of the system within the workspace
Test an application in a lab situation prior to wide-scale implementation
Assess organizational readiness prior to implementation, for many clinicians to adopt a new system they must feel it addresses a particular or important concern for clinical practice
Courtney, K.L., et al., 2008
Boundaries need to be set as new interfaces and hyperconnectivity mean we are increasingly mobile, which could blur the line between work and personal space (Rodden, T., 2008)
HCI in action
Blythe, M.A., Monk, A.F., & Doughty, K. (2005). Socially dependable design: The challenge of ageing populations for HCI. Interacting with Computers 17; 672-689.
Courtney, K.L., Alexander, G.L., & Demiris, G. (2008). Information technology from novice to expert: implementation implications. Journal of Nursing Management, 16, 692-699.
Hozinger, A. (ed). (2010). Editorial: Human-Computer Interaction for Medicine and Health Care (HC14MED): Towards making Information usable. International Journal Human-Computer Studies, 68, 325-327.
Hudlicka, E. (2003). To feel or not to feel: The role of affect in human-computer interaction. International Journal Human-Computer Studies, 59, 1-32.
McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K. (2012). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (2nd. ed.). Boston: Jones and Bartlett, Publishers.
Myers, B. A. (1999). Overview of HCI Design and Implementation. Speakers notes retrieved from http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~bam/uicourse/special/.
Sandblad, B. (nd). Human-Computer Interaction and usability in health care (power-point slides). Retrieved from http://www.it.uu.se/research/hci.
Sousa Santos, B. (2006). An introductory course on Human-Computer Interaction: Programme, bibliography, practical classes and assignments. Computers & Graphics, 30, 658-668.
Rodden, T. (2008, April 7). Human Computer Interaction in the Year 2020. Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/102984.php.
Williamson, J.E. (2007). Automated decontam scrubs away inefficiencies. Healthcare Purchasing News, 50.
1. What, if any, HCI technologies exist in your organization? What benefits does this technology bring for your clients? For you, the health professional? What challenges?
2. What uses could you see for a HCI based technology in your workplace? If you had the ability to design and integrate a HCI to your practice what would it look like? Dream big...
3. What barriers would prevent this technology from being put to use in your organization?
Solutions for success