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Globalization

Revision phase - english major course
by

Nathalie Wellen

on 1 June 2013

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Transcript of Globalization

Globalization Facing global challenges What is globalization? Definition Opportunities Challenges Future Role Problems and Obstacles Role Brand America Influences Role of America music,films,media, food most representative inter-governmental
organization UN has to protect the human rights and international law (global security)
achieve that nations feel responsible for themselves and their security
organize international cooperation in a democratic way – every member have to have a say in a decision making process
of UN structure Multinationals Outsourcing History language pollution companies, strongest economic power international cooperation, democracy History The United Nations Climate Change communication Additional links:
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact1_e.htm (World Trade Organization)
http://www.imf.org/external/about/overview.htm (International Monetary Fund)
http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Levitt#Role_in_developing_the_term_.22globalization.22
http://mitsloan.mit.edu/50th/pdf/consumer.pdf (Consumers' power)
http://www.globalenvision.org/library/33/1472 (language preservation)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/guide/languages.shtml (info on languages in the world)
http://gleaner.rutgers.edu/2012/04/18/sweatshops-and-child-labor-the-price-of-fashion/
http://www.veganpeace.com/sweatshops/sweatshops_and_child_labor.htm (Child Labor and sweatshops/What can we do?)





Other sources:
http://www.udallcenter.arizona.edu/programs/immigration/publications/fact_sheet_no_3_illegal_immigration.pdf (study)
http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2008/053008.htm
http://www.vokipedia.de/index.php/DEU:Englisch:Globalisation_and_global_challenges (Vocabulary)
http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/0/10030/globalization-chap1.pdf (History of Globalization) Child Labor loss of cultural diversity 1989
fall of Soviet
Communism 1957
first satellite strongest military might,
leaders of war against terrorism Global player
examples Effects climat change
(see later) transportation of products adding to the problem Reasons Measures more extreme temperatures :
heat waves, melting glaciers, typhoons and so on.. sweatshops homeless or dead people, damage and high costs change of seasons -> problem for animals
1/4 of all animals and plants will die (In the next 50 years) salinity is decreasing -> problem for the oceans terrorism far bigger threat to terrestrial species Outsourcing sweatshops worldwide sea level is rising low-lying coast areas could be flooded by the sea health and food security is threatened outbreak of malaria and diarrhea and increase of malnutrition - open trade
- integration of countries into the world 1492 first era: countries => catastrophic consequences for the whole world rapid raise of greenhouse gases from the onset of the industrial area human activity since 1750 is five times greater than the effect of fluctuations in the sun`s output deforestation 1800 second era: companies greenhouse effect - falling costs for transportation and communication
- multinational companies 1760-1830
industrial
revolution WW 1 2000 third era: individuals worldwide change on an economic, technological, cultural level growth of fast interaction increasing mobility of people (immigration, tourism, business traveling) global spread of ideas and values distribution of information better thinking of the layout of cities improving public transport and rail freight developing electric vehicles - competition
- collaboration with other companies developing renewable energies
-> bio fuels
-> wind turbines
-> solar heating panels
-> solar photovoltaic panels
-> geothermal energy storing CO2 underground developing nuclear energy now global players maximizing their profit negotiated through encouraged by http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact1_e.htm http://www.imf.org/external/about/overview.htm spread of commercial culture: Bollywood fast food chains shrinking distances 1956
invention
of the
shipping
container Millennium
Declaration
UN http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm 1983
popularization
of the term
Globalization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Levitt#Role_in_developing_the_term_.22globalization.22 discovery of America
Christopher Columbus linguistic heritage http://www.globalenvision.org/library/33/1472
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/guide/languages.shtml monopolies illegal immigration wider range of products highly efficient transportation international cooperation - English 2nd most widely spoken language in the world
- bridging the communication gab between countries
- threatens the continued existence of many mother tongues
- language connected to cultural heritage "killer language" incorporating elements of the native tongue language of communication 6,909 known languages
google search in 46 =shifting services/production of goods to an external company
--> transfer to low-wage countries to save costs http://www.udallcenter.arizona.edu/programs/immigration/publications/fact_sheet_no_3_illegal_immigration.pdf (study) 180,000 per year 1980s 850,000 per year since 2000 illegal immigration to the USA manufacturing costs profit salaries product price or equals consequence: reducing our energy consumption http://www.veganpeace.com/sweatshops/sweatshops_and_child_labor.htm any factory that violates two or more labor laws e.g. wages and benefits, working hours & child labor many are forced to work 61% in Asia, 32% in Africa & 7% in Latin America only seller dictate the prices strong influence on political decisions often multinationals destruction of smaller companies spread of democratic values customers' power increased world-wide trade Restriction of foreign policy
focused on territorial expansion on North-America
cemented by Monroe-Doctrine 1823
end of Isolationism: entry into world war I Engagement to act in foreign areas
military and economic world power
major player in the establishment of the United Nations
after 1945: used their military and economic might to superior its democratic ideals
result: Cold War between USA and USSR
by time : collapse of Soviet Union -> USA became sole remaining global power
1991 : instigated the Gulf War against Iraq
after September 11th U.S. declared a War on terror dominant power in the world
leader of world trade
technical and artistic skills e.g. scientists, doctors
humanitarian projects
military strength peace, freedom, democracy, equal opportunities
free trade and capitalism improvement of living conditions
protecting the safety and freedom of all American citizens
bringing developmental and humanitarian aid to foreign people in need 18th and 19th centuries: Isolationism 20th Century : Interventionism 20th Century = American Century Cultural: weapon technology, space program technologically: military: role models on personal life: environmentally: political: economically: ideals: http://mitsloan.mit.edu/50th/pdf/consumer.pdf solution: outsourcing http://www.veganpeace.com/sweatshops/sweatshops_and_child_labor.htm
http://gleaner.rutgers.edu/2012/04/18/sweatshops-and-child-labor-the-price-of-fashion/ don't fulfill their ideals
military involvements
support of dictatorships with financial or military aid
US feeling of superiority
social division cultural sovereignty of member states
clash of interests and priorities
combining different political systems with manifold interest groups
religious diversity financial, economic under financing of the UN
dependence on member states
equal share of influence of member states for peace:
- Africa: campaign against apartheid
- Europe: UN work with people of Kosovo to create functioning, democratic state
- USA: UN mission to observe Nicaragua's elections
disarmament:
- important to maintain security and peace
- reducing/ eliminate nuclear weapons...
economic/ social:
- promote higher standards of living, e.g. Millenium Development Goals system immanent unfair representation in security council
veto right of permanent members
inability of reform convincing/ get message across lack of power and inefficiency of sanctions
dilemma between UN ideals of peaceful actions and realities of peace-making six principal
organs: General
Assembly Security
Council Economic and
Social Council Trusteeship
Council Court of
Justice Secretary System/ Actions actions system founded after Second World War 3 major goals: maintain peace and security,
friendly relations +
cooperation active, international peace keeper representative of members
functions:
assignation who is a
member or not
content of charta
voting power: 1 vote/ member 5 permanent members (veto right) and 10 cycling members
make a decision 54 members
every year changing of 18 members
function:
international questions in economic, religion, social and culture
special commission
adherence of human right?! supervisor over escrow areas together with "Vollversammlung" 15 members (judges), 9 year tenure
major organ of jurisdiction
holding-organ when there is a problem on top: general secretary
(since 2007: Ban Ki-Moon) reasons for bad reputation: ECOSOC functions are difficult to define (UN Charta not specific about power)
functions:
arrangement of the meetings of the secretary-general
publishing treaties and international agreements
administer peacekeeping operations
translating speeches /documents into the UN’s
official languages reform http://presse.lufthansa.com/de/politikbrief/themen/biokraftstoffe.html http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windpark#Beispiele_besonderer_Windparks http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_water_heating http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaik
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