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Transcript of Particle Physics
strong force 1898 A.D. Joseph J. Thompson discovers and measures electrons while putting high voltages on gases. He puts forth the Plum Pudding Theory. Quantum Theory A 1905 A.D. Albert Einstein explains the photoelectric effect and the relationship between mass and energy. Quarks There are six kinds or "flavors": up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom.
Three "colors" to each flavor: red, blue, green.
Primary constituents of matter. Leptons Three kinds of lepton particles: electron, muon, tau.
Two types for each particle: charged lepton and neutral lepton (aka neutrino).
Primary constituents of matter. Gauge Bosons Four boson particles: photon, gluon, W boson, Z boson.
They are force carriers.
What makes them different from fermions is the fact that their spin is a whole number. Mass There are two kinds of mass: mass at rest and relativistic mass.
The full equation is: E = (mc ) + (pc)
However, if an object isn't moving, thus having no momentum and speed, pc = 0 , so the equation is simply
E = mc
The same can be said for a massless object, like light.
E = pc
The equation for an object at rest is: m = E/c
E.g. A down quark has a mass of 4.8 MeV/c Higgs-Boson Back in the 1960s, Peter Higgs and some other scientists believed that there was another mysterious particle. They believed that the universe had a lattice that gave this mysterious particle mass. That particle is known as the Higgs-Boson particle.
This particle was theorized around 50 years ago, but on the summer of 2012, a particle with very similar characteristics was discovered on the LHC. More tests have to be run to for CERN to confidently confirm the existence of this particle, however.
The Higgs-boson, also known as the God-particle to some scientists, is what gave particles mass in the first place.
Ironically, the existence of the Higgs-boson will create many more problems for scientists. Large Hadron Collider f largest particle accelerator
built by CERN from 1998-2008
175 meters under Franc-Swiss border
circumference: 27 km
can produce up to 3.5 TeV per beam
collaboration with 10,000 scientists and engineers, as well as hundreds of universities and labratories
Budget (as of 2010): 7.5 billion euros Facts Facts Uses Higgs Boson
dark matter and energy
extra dimensions Fermilab Tetravon Achievements quark-gluon plasma achieved
Xb (3P) bottomium state
discovery of the Higgs Boson (more tests need to be run for confirmation) Stanford Linear Collider In The Future 2 - - - Fundamental Forces Force Range Relative Strength
Gravity infinite 10
Weak 10 m 10
Electromagnetic infinite 1
Strong 10 m 100 -18 -5 -18 -15 -38 2 2 2 2 2 2 Electronvolts Just like how grams is too large of a number to describe the mass of a particle, joules is too large of number to describe the energy that a particle possesses.
1 eV = 1.6 x 10 J
1 MeV = 1.6 x 10 J
1 GeV = 1.6 x 10 J -19 -10 -13 Facts Uses Achievements Created in 1967 as the National Accelerator Labratory
Created by the Fermi National Accelerator Labratory
30 miles west of Chicago
second largest accelerator
closed down on September 30, 2011 top quark (t)
bottom Omega baryon (Ω ) b - neutrino experiments
raising American Bisons
proton and anti-proton collisions Achievements Uses Facts created by Stanford University's National Accelerator Labratory, which was originally known as SLAC
located in Stan Hill Road in Melo Park, California
1.9 miles long — longest linear accelerator in the world
1,000 employed people — 100 of them are physicists with a doctorate degree atomic and solid-state physics
Z boson charm quark (c)
structure of quarks inside nucleons
tau lepton (t) - -- - At the end of 2012, the LHC will shut down for 20 months. During that time peiod, there will be full energy operations, so the accelerator can fire 7 TeV for each beam. Scientists are finding more ways to make the particle accelerator more widespread. In fact, the road to cancer treatment with it is advancing quite quickly More research is done on neutrinos and antineutrinos. The Lawrence Livermore National Labratory is currently creating scintillator detectors to monitor nuclear waste. s Antiparticles All fermions have anti-particles. They are exactly like their original counterparts, but have the opposite charge.
Crashing matter is a daily occurance in particle accelerators
There are many theories about why particles are much more common than antiparticles.
Example of anti-particles and anti-hadrons
Also, can you guess what happens when an partilce collides with its counterpart? Hadrons Quark theory of the strucutre of matter: all hadrons are made up of quarks.
Hadrons are either baryons and mesons. hadron: a particle made up of a quark
baryon: a particle made up of three quarks.
meson: a particle made up of a quark and an anti-quark Examples of baryons: proton, neutron, lambda, bottomium
Examples of mesons: pion, kaon, B-meson
An electron is not made up of any particles. Mysteries Bibliography Kirk, Tim, and Neil Hodgson. Physics: Course Companion. Glasgow, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. 317-342. Print.
Lafo, Susan. "Particle Physics Timeline." Particle Adventure. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct 2012. <http://www.particleadventure.org/other/history/index.html>.
Standard Model of Elementary Particles. 2006. WikimediaWeb. 26 Oct 2012. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia>.
Grolling, Tobias, and Jonas Strandberg. "CERN: The Standard Model Of Particle Physics ." Youtube. 12 2010. . Web. 5 Nov 2012.
Bradley, Phil. Contents. N.p., 07 1995. Web. 5 Nov 2012.<http://hepwww.rl.ac.uk/public/ phil/contents.html>.
Linsell, Roger, dir. Quarks and Leptons for Beginners. 2008. Film. 5 Nov 2012. < 1909 A.D. Geiger, Marsden, and Rutherford scatter alpha particles off a thin sheet of gold foil. 1911 A.D. Through the gold foil experiment, Rutherford concludes that the atom has a nucleus. 1913 A.D. Niels Bohr successfully creates a model of an atom through quantum ideas. 1919 A.D. Rutherford finds the first evidence for a proton — the first baryon and hadron to be discovered. 1921 A.D. James Chadwick and E.S. Bieler conclude that some kind of strong force holds the nucleus together. 1925 A.D. Wolfgang Pauli formulates the exclusion principle for electrons in an atom. Bothe and Geiger give experimental evidence that energy and mass are both conserved in an atomic process. 1926 A.D. Erwin Shroedinger postulates the behavior of bosons. G.N. Lewis coins the term "photon". 1930 A.D. Wolfgang Pauli believes that another particle — a neutrino — may exist in beta-decay. 1931 A.D. Paul Dirac realizes that the positively charges particles in his experiments are not protons, but a positron. This is the first discovery of an anti-particle. 1931 A.D. James Chadwick discovers the neutron. however, strong binding and decay are the primary problems to the existence of the neutron. 1933-4 A.D. Enrico Fermi puts forth the theory of beta decay. It was the first theory to explicitly use neutrinos and particle falvor changes. 1933-4 A.D. Hideki Yukawa combines relativity and quantum theory to describe the strong interactions between pions — the first meson to be discovered. The beginning of the meson theory has begun. 1937 A.D. The uon was discovered, which was in cosmic rays. 1941 A.D. The term nucleon was used. 1947-8 A.D. The term leptons are used to describe electrons and muons. Ways of calculating the electromagnetic properties of particles are found. Introduction of Feynman diagrams. 1948 A.D. The first artificial pions are made in Berkeley. Enrico Fermi and Franklin Yang suggest that a pion is a composite structure of anuleon and an anti-nucleon.