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Transcript of Permanent Ice
Penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, which is used for camouflage. Highly adapted for life in the water, their wings have evolved into flippers. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance.
Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing", which conserves energy while moving quickly. They also jump with both feet together if they want to move more quickly or cross steep or rocky terrain. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sea life caught while swimming underwater
Within the smooth plumage (wing) a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy while in water. The air layer also helps insulate the birds in cold waters. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing. They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream. The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages. Polar bears are a bear native largely within the Arctic Circle inhabiting around the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas, and surrounding land masses. It is the world's largest land carnivore and also the largest bear.
Compared with its closest relative, the brown bear, the polar bear has a more lengthened body build and a longer skull and nose. The feet are very large to distribute load when walking on snow or thin ice and to provide propulsion when swimming. The pads of the paws are covered with small, soft papillae (dermal bumps) which provide traction on the ice. Polar bear fur consists of a layer of dense under fur and an outer layer of guard hairs, which appear white to tan but are actually transparent.
Polar bears can hunt their preferred food of seals from the edge of sea ice, often living off fat reserves when no sea ice is present. The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting: the bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear. When the seal exhales, the bear smells its breath, reaches into the hole with a forepaw, and drags it out onto the ice.
Unlike grizzly bears, polar bears are not territorial. Although stereotyped as being voraciously aggressive, they are normally cautious in confrontations, and often choose to escape rather than fight. Walrus is a large flippered mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern. The walrus is the only living species in the Odobenidae and Odobenusgenus family.
Adult walruses are easily recognized by their prominent tusks, whiskers, and bulkiness; walrus's hide usually accounts for about 20% of its body weight. The walrus's body shape shares features with both sea lions and seals. As with otariids (eared seal), it can turn its rear flippers forward and move on all fours; however, its swimming technique is more like that of true seals, relying less on flippers and more on sinuous whole body movements.
Walruses live mostly in shallow waters above the continental shelves. The walrus has a diverse and opportunistic diet, feeding on more than 60 genera of marine organisms, including shrimp, crabs, tube worms, soft corals, tunicates, sea, various mollusks, and even parts of other pinnipeds. However, it prefers benthic bivalve mollusks, especially clams, for which it forages by grazing along the sea bottom. For the rest of the year (late summer and fall), walruses tend to form massive aggregations of tens of thousands of individuals on rocky beaches or outcrops. The arctic fox, also known as the white fox, polar fox or snow fox, is a small fox native to Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and is common throughout the Arctic tundra biome. It is well adapted to living in cold environments.
It has a deep thick fur which is brown in summer and white in winter. Among its adaptations for cold survival are its deep, thick fur, a system of countercurrent heat exchange in the circulation of paws to retain core temperature, and a good supply of body fat. The fox has a low surface area to volume ratio, as evidenced by its generally rounded body shape, short muzzle and legs, and short, thick ears. Since less of its surface area is exposed to the arctic cold, less heat escapes the body. It has furry soles, short ears, and a short muzzle. Its furry paws allow it to walk on ice in search of food.
They prey on any small animals they can find, including lemmings, voles, ringed seal pups, fish, and bird eggs. They will also eat carrion, berries, and seaweed. When it finds prey, it pounces and punches through the snow to catch its victim. They form monogamous pairs during the breeding season and usually stay together in family groups of multiple generations in complex underground dens. The arctic hare or polar rabbit is a species of hare which only stores body fat in the summer. The arctic hare survives with a thick coat of fur and usually digs holes under the ground or snow to keep warm and sleep.
Arctic hares look like rabbits but have shorter ears and can stand up taller, and can live/maintain themselves in cold places unlike rabbits. The arctic hare can run up to 40 miles (64 km) per hour. The arctic hare is one of the largest living lagomorphs.
Arctic hare can travel together with many other hares, sometimes huddling with dozens or more, but are usually found alone, taking in some cases more than one partner. The arctic hare eats mainly woody plants but also dine on buds, berries, leaves and grasses. In the early summer they eat purple saxifrage. It has a keen sense of smell and may dig for willow twigs under the snow. When eating plants, the arctic hare likes to stand where there is less snow to easily locate twigs or plants that fall off or lie on the ground for it to chew on/feed on. Their life spans are 5 years if they aren't killed by their predators or die of unnatural causes. The red algae or Rhodophyta are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae, and also one of the largest, with about 5,000–6,000 species of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds.
The red algae form a distinct group characterized by these attributes: eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean polysaccharides as food reserves, with phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments (giving them their red color), and with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids. Most red algae are also multi-cellular, macroscopic, marine, and have sexual reproduction. Red algae have double cell walls. The outer layers are usually composed of "pectic substances", from which agar can be manufactured. The internal walls are mostly cellulose. Their optimum growth temperatures are generally below 10° C. These algae have successfully adapted to their harsh environment through the development of a number of features which include pigments, polyols (sugar alcohols, e.g. glycerine), sugars and lipids (oils), mucilage sheaths, motile stages and spore formation. Saxifraga oppositifolia, the purple saxifrage, or purple mountain saxifrage, is a species of edible plant that is very common all over the high Arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps, and the Rocky Mountains.
The leaves are small, rounded, scale-like, opposite in 4 rows, and with ciliated margins. The flowers are solitary on short stalks, petals purple or lilac, much longer than the calyx lobes. It is a low-growing, densely or loosely matted plant growing to 3–5 cm high, with somewhat woody branches of creeping or trailing habit close to the surface. The flowers grow to about 0.5 inches in diameter.
It is one of the very first spring flowers, continuing to flower during the whole summer in localities where the snow melts later. It grows in all kinds of cold temperate to arctic habitats, from sea level up to 1000 m, in many places colouring the landscape. It is a popular plant in alpine gardens, though difficult to grow in warm climates. Eriophorum (cottongrass, Cotton-grass or cottonsedge) is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the family Cyperaceae, the Sedge family. They are found throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere in acid bog habitats, being particularly plentiful in Arctic tundra regions.
They are herbaceous perennial plants with slender, grass-like leaves. The seed heads are covered in a fluffy mass of cotton which is carried on the wind to aid dispersal.
In cold arctic regions these masses of translucent fibers also serve as 'down', increasing the temperature of the reproductive organs during the arctic summer by trapping solar radiation. Salix arctica (arctic willow) is a tiny creeping willow (family Salicaceae). It is adapted to survive in harsh Arctic and subarctic environments, and has a circumpolar distribution round the Arctic Ocean.
Salix arctica is typically a low shrub growing to only 1–15 cm (0.39–5.9 in) in height (rarely to 25 cm (9.8 in) high), but in the Pacific Northwest, it may reach 50 cm (20 in) in height, and has round, shiny green leaves 1–4 cm (0.39–1.6 in) long and broad, rarely up to 8 centimetres (3.1 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) broad; they are pubescent, with long silky, silvery hairs. Like the rest of the willows, arctic willow is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate plants. As a result, the plant's appearance varies; the female catkins are red-coloured, while the male catkins are yellow-coloured. Despite its small size, it is a long-lived plant, growing extremely slowly in the severe Arctic climate; one in eastern Greenland was found to be 236 years old. Bearberries are three species of dwarf shrubs in the genus Arctostaphylos. Unlike the other species of Arctostaphylos , they are adapted to Arctic and Subarctic climates, and have a circumpolar distribution in northern North America, Asia and Europe, one with a small highly disjunctive population in Central America.
Bearberry is a procumbent (lying face down) shrub usually less than 6 inches (15 cm) high. Leaves are clearly toothed and the edges are not downturned. They often turn red to scarlet in autumn, and can persist on stems for several years. Flowers are narrow, urn shaped, and pink to white. The berries are dark purple to black. By: David and Jordan Permanent Ice Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species. In 1877, Bennett used the word symbiosis (which previously had been used to depict people living together in community) to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms."
The definition of symbiosis is controversial among scientists. Some believe symbiosis should only refer to persistent mutualisms, while others believe it should apply to any types of persistent biological interactions (i.e. mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic).
Some symbiotic relationships are obligate, meaning that both symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival. For example, many lichensconsist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts that cannot live on their own. Others are facultative, meaning that they can, but do not have to live with the other organism.
Symbiotic relationships include those associations in which one organism lives on another (ectosymbiosis, such as mistletoe), or where one partner lives inside the other (endosymbiosis, such as lactobacilli and other bacteria in humans or Symbiodinium in corals). Mutualism Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits. Similar interactions within a species are known as co-operation.
A well-known example of mutualism is the relationship between ungulates (such as Bovines) and bacteria within their intestines. The ungulates benefit from the cellulase produced by the bacteria, which facilitates digestion; the bacteria benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients in the host environment.
Mutualism plays a key part in ecology. For example, mutualistic interactions are vital for terrestrial ecosystem function as more than 48% of land plants rely on mycorrhizal relationships with fungi to provide them with inorganic compounds and trace elements. In addition, mutualism is thought to have driven the evolution of much of the biological diversity we see, such as flower forms (important for pollination mutualisms) and co-evolution between groups of species. However mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation and parasitism.
Measuring the exact fitness benefit to the individuals in a mutualistic relationship is not always straightforward; particularly when the individuals can receive benefits from a variety of species, for example most plant-pollinator mutualisms. It is therefore common to categorise mutualisms according to the closeness of the association, using terms such as obligate and facultative. Defining "closeness," however, is also problematic. It can refer to mutual dependency (the species cannot live without one another) or the biological intimacy of the relationship in relation to physical closeness (e.g., one species living within the tissues of the other species). Commensalism In ecology, commensalism is a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits without affecting the other.
Originally, the term was used to describe the use of waste food by second animals, like the carcass eaters that follow hunting animals, but wait until they have finished their meal. Commensalism is harder to demonstrate than parasitism and mutualism, for it is easier to show a single instance whereby the host is affected, than it is to prove or disprove that possibility. Usually, a detailed investigation will show that the host indeed has become affected by the relationship. Parasitism Parasitism is a non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
Unlike predators, parasites are generally much smaller than their host; both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions. Parasites show a high degree of specialization, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas.
Parasites increase their fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, e.g. food, water, heat, habitat, and transmission. Mutualism Commensalism Doctor Fish Predation Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a fungus (the mycobiont) and a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont or phycobiont) growing together in a symbiotic relationship. Lichen is basically a "colony" of both fungus and algae living together. The fungus provides rooted structural protection, including a "base" on which the algae grows attached to a tree, wall, etc. The Algae in turn supplies the fungus with nutrients such as glucose from photosynthesis and oxygen from respiration. Barnacles are the "hitchhikers" of the sea. A barnacle is a type of arthropod (invertebrate) that belongs to the infraclass cirripedia “curl-footed” and is in the subphylum crustacea (crabs, lobsters). Most barnacles tend to live in shallow and tidal waters, except those that live on whales. They are sessile (non-motile) and are suspension feeders. They feed by filtering food particles in water by using a specialized filtering structure. Their protective shell is made of six calcium rich plates. Inside the carapace, the animal lies on its back with its limbs projecting forward. Doctor fish is the name given to the species of fish Garra rufa. Other nicknames include nibble fish, kangal fish, physio fish, and doctorfishen. Fish Doctor, a type of isopod crustacean, will attach itself under the fins, scales, or gills of most species of fish. It then sucks the blood of the host fish until it dies. Competition Sea sponges and other sessile organisms compete fiercely with each other (i.e. coral) for space using physical and chemical warfare, sponges that evolved anti-sponge toxins were often victorious over non-toxic varieties. Thus, most sponges living today produce potent toxins, which provide a secondary benefit of discouraging all but the most highly adapted predators, such as the sea slugs. Polar bears feed mainly on ringed and bearded seals. Depending upon their location, they also eat harp and hooded seals and scavenge on carcasses of beluga whales, walruses, and bowhead whales. Importance Symbiosis is an important part of the complex ecosystem we live in. Symbiosis is basically what maintains the balance of nature. For some animals symbiosis is the key to their survival, like the crab and shrimp mutualism relationship we saw in class; the shrimp wouldn’t survive in the harsh marine society and the fish wouldn’t have a home either if this unique mutualism relationship didn’t exist.
The food chain is a very delicate system; it can easily break down and will eventually lead to the extinction of all life, including humans. When one dies, the prey who feeds on the animal will starve and go extinct and the animal who feed on that will also go extinct because of starvation, and this domino effect will continue until life is wiped out on Earth.
Without competition, strong plants will easily triumph over the weak, leading to the extinction all of the weak plants, the animals that feed off these plants will also go extinct of starvation as well, as explained earlier.
Animals like barnacles are essential to be carried around by fishes or whales, so the barnacles can pick up food and get transported to better location for their survival. If this requirement is not met, the extinction of barnacles would be very likely, and the chain reaction of extinction will start. Commensalism is basically animals aiding one another in goal of survival.
Parasitism is also essential in the ecosystem. It is also the way the animal survives, like predation, without food the animal won’t able to survive or increase in population. One problem with humans now, we are overflowing on Earth, reaching over 6 billion people, reaching the limit on how much the Earth can support; we got no predictors that prey on us. To avoid such event in the animal society, death and killing must occur to control the population, which is one of the major roles predation and parasitism play. Bibliography 1)“Symbiosis.” Wikipedia. Feb. 26, 2013.
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Whale+%26+Barnacle+Symbiosis 6) "How do barnacles affect whales?” Yahoo Answers. Feb. 26, 2013.http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20111108013908AAXuTTW7)“Lichen.” Wikipedia. Feb. 27, 2013.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lichen#Symbionts8)“Explain how lichen illustrates mutualism?” Yahoo Answers. Feb. 27, 2013.http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081220091445AAL2TCN9)“What is an example or mutualism in the arctic tundra?” Answer. Feb. 27, 2013.http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_an_example_of_mutualism_in_the_artic_tundra10)“Polar Bears Diet & Eating Habits.” Animals. Feb. 27, 2013.http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/polar-bear/diet.htm11)“Relationships in coral reef presentation.” Slideshare. Feb. 28, 2013.http://www.slideshare.net/melissadina/relationships-in-coral-reef-presentation Bibliography 1) “Polar Climate.” Wikipedia. Feb. 7, 2013.
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