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The Cell Theory
Transcript of The Cell Theory
Renaissance physician who revolutionized the study of biology and the practice of medicine by his careful description of the anatomy of the human body. Basing his his observations on dissections he made himself, he wrote and illustrated the first comprehensive textbook of anatomy.
9th Sep, 1540
Janssen is accredible for several advancements toward the invention of the telescope and by some historians, he is believed to be the original inventer: his microscope was finished around 1610. He is also accredited as the inventor of the first true compound microscope. However, the origin of the microscope is debatable. There is some evidence that his father Hans Janssen assisted him with his inventions but no proof.
11th Sep, 1610
Hans and Zacharias Janssen
12th Sep, 1660
In 1665 Hooke published Micrographia, a book describing his microscopic and telescopic observations, and some original work in biology. Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms, the term being suggested by the resemblance of plant cells to monks' cells. (The word cell mean little room in latin)
The First Microscope
Nearly 16 centuries passed before Zacharias Janssen and his father, Hans, experimented by mounting two lenses in a tube. They discovered that the lenses working together allowed a much higher magnification than either lens alone, if they were placed in the proper alignment. The Janssen's microscope was a direct-view model, similar to microscopes used in science classes and laboratories today.
Zacharias Jansen micrscope structure:
Anton van Leeuwenhoek:
Jean Baptiste Lamarck:
Spontaneous generation refers to both the supposed process by which life would systematically emerge from sources other than seeds, eggs or parents and to the theories which explained the apparent phenomenon.
3rd Nov, 1665
Did an experiment to determine if rotting meat turned into flies. He found that meat cannot turn into flies and only flies could make more flies. This was an important experiment because it helped to disprove the theory of spontaneous generation. It did this by showing that the rotten meat did not turn into flies and only flies could make more flies.
11th Sep, 1668
Dutch microscopist who was the first to observe bacteria and protozoa. As a hobby, Leeuwenhoek began grinding lenses and using them to study minute objects, particularly small organisms. His researches on lower animals refuted the doctrine of spontaneous generation, and his observations helped lay the foundations for the sciences of bacteriology and protozoology.
9th Sep, 1674
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Needham came up with an experiment that supported his theory of spontaneous generation which is the idea that life occurs spontaneously at the microscopic level without the need for reproduction from preexisting life. His theory was disproved by Lazzaro Spallanzani.
11th Sep, 1750
Spallanzani suggested that microbes could move through the air to cause what other some scientists of the time called spontaneous generation. He also showed that by boiling the microbes in a sample no spontaneous generation would occur suggesting that contamination was the cause of seemingly spontaneous life. His work suggested that all cells come from preexisting cells. This paved the scientific path for Louis Pasteur's work.
11th Sep, 1768
Lamarck is accredited for contributing to the theory of evolution. His primary conribution was the theory of inheritance of accuired characteristics which is sometimes reffered to as Lamarckism. He came up with much evidence that evolution occured due to natural laws which brought him to create the first truly coherent theory of evolution.
11th Sep, 1800
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Lorenz Oken came up with a new system of animal classification that demonstrated the path of evolution including: Dermatozoa- invertabrates Glossozoa- fish with the first toungues Rhinozoa- reptiles in which the nose opens into the mouth and us used for respiration Otozoa- birds with the first externally open ears Ophthalmozoa- mammals including all sensory organs.
11th Sep, 1802
The first to recognize the nucleus as an essential constituent of living cells (1831). Brown recognized the general occurrence of the nucleus in these cells and apparently thought of the organization of the plant in terms of cellular constituents.
12th Sep, 1830
Contributed the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism. He also stated that "All living things are composed of cells and cell products." And he proved the cellular origin and development of the most highly differentiated tissues including nails, feathers, and tooth enamel.
12th Sep, 1837
Schleiden preferred to study plant structure under the microscope. While a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to Phytogenesis , in which he stated that the different parts of the plant organism are composed of cells. Schleiden and Theodor Schwann became the first to formulate what was then an informal belief as a principle of biology equal in importance to the atomic theory of chemistry. He also recognized the importance of the cell nucleus.
11th Sep, 1838
Most widely known scientific contribution is his cell theory, which built on the work of Theodor Schwann. He is cited as the first to recognize leukemia cells. He was one of the first to accept and plagiarize the work of Robert Remak who showed that the origins of cells was the division of preexisting cells.
12th Sep, 1850
Pasteur came up with a process to prevent milk and wine from making people sick (Pasteurization) which was based off his work in germ theory. He had proven spontaneous generation false and replaced it biogenesis which states that all living things came from preexisting life. Biogenesis is the basis or Germ Theory which, though not originally his idea, led Pasteur to discover vaccines for Rabies and Anthrax as well as other medical accomplishments.
11th Sep, 1862
Zacharias Janssen was a Dutch spectacle-maker from Middelburg associated with the invention of the first optical telescope. Janssen is sometimes also credited for inventing the first truly compound microscope. However, the origin of the microscope, just like the origin of the telescope, is a matter of debate.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. He was professor at the University of Padua and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V.
Robert Hooke (28 July 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity.
Francesco Redi (February 18, 1626 – March 1, 1697) was an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. He was the first scientist to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. He was also the first to recognise and correctly describe details of many important parasites, and for this reason, as many historians and scientists claim, he may rightly be called the father of modern parasitology, and also regarded as the founder of experimental biology.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 – August 26, 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology. He was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules, and which are now referred to as microorganisms. He was also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers, bacteria, spermatozoa, and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). Leeuwenhoek did not author any books; his discoveries came to light through correspondence with the Royal Society, which published his letters.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
John Turberville Needham (10 September 1713 – 30 December 1781) was an English biologist and Roman Catholic priest. He was first exposed to natural philosophy while in seminary school and later published a paper which, while the subject was mostly about geology, described the mechanics of pollen and won recognition in the botany community. He did experiments with gravy and later, tainted wheat, in containers. This was in order to experiment with spontaneous generation.
Lazzaro Spallanzani ( 10 January 1729 – 12 February 1799) was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially animal echolocation. His research of biogenesis paved the way for the downfall of preformationism theory, though the final death blow to preformationism was dealt by Pasteur.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. He gave the term biology a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry, meteorology, geology, and botany-zoology.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Lorenz Oken (1 August 1779 – 11 August 1851) was a German naturalist. Oken was born Lorenz Okenfuss in Bohlsbach , Ortenau, Baden, and studied natural history and medicine at the universities of Freiburg and Würzburg. In it he extended to physical science the philosophical principles which Immanuel Kant had applied to epistemology and morality. Oken had been preceded in this by Gottlieb Fichte, who, acknowledging that Kant had discovered the materials for a universal science, declared that all that was needed was a systematic coordination of these materials.
Robert Brown (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the first observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology. He also made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, including the erection of a number of plant families that are still accepted today; and numerous Australian plant genera and species, the fruit of his exploration of that continent with Matthew Flinders.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term metabolism.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 – 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
Born in Hamburg, Schleiden was educated at Heidelberg, then practiced law in Hamburg, but soon developed his love for the botany into a full-time pursuit. Schleiden preferred to study plant structure under the microscope. While a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to Phytogenesis, in which he stated that the different parts of the plant organism are composed of cells.
Rudolph Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humorism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also considered one of the founders of social medicine.
In 1861, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1892, he was awarded the Copley Medal. Among his most famous students was anthropologist Franz Boas, who became a professor at Columbia University.
The Society for Medical Anthropology gives an annual award in Virchow's name, the Rudolf Virchow Award.
Louis Pasteur December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist who is well known for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and preventions of diseases, and his discoveries have saved countless lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the "father of microbiology".