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Communication Styles

Learning and Communication Group 1 Communication Styles Prezi
by

Martin Walker

on 1 October 2015

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Transcript of Communication Styles

Verbal communication is the
sharing of information by speaking.

Written
Written communication is conveying information using words, pictures or diagrams. (Prozesky, D. 2000)

Non Verbal
Verbal
Passive
Written Communication
Three Different Styles
Communication Styles
by
Christine Briggs,
Jodie Francis and Martin Walker

INTRODUCTION
Aggressive Written Communication
Communication Styles have many different characteristics and delivery methods.
Communication will be portrayed with a loud voice and in an abrupt manner.
Tone of voice will be sarcastic or condescending.


VERBAL COMMUNICATION
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
The Passive delivery method for Non-verbal communication would be demonstrated by a person being non expressive or engaging during the communication.

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Passive Non Verbal Communication
Assertive Non Verbal Communication
To be successful with non-verbal assertive communication, the presenter must be able to match the non verbal with the verbal message being communicated.

Aggressive Non Verbal Communication
They would demonstrate one or more of the following characteristics during the communication:
DELIVERY METHODS
Passive
Aggressive
Assertive
References (APA Style)
Andersen, P. A. (2008).
Nonverbal Communication: Forms and Functions
. Mountain View, CA: Waveland Press Incorporated

Blatner, A. (2009).
About Non Verbal Communication
. Retrieved from http://www.blatner.com/adam/level2/nverb1.htm

Body Language - Understanding Nonverbal Communication
. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/Body_Language.htm

Houston,P., Floyd, M.,Carnicero, S. (2012).
Spy the Lie: How to spot deception the CIA way
. London: Icon Books Ltd.

Jackson, K. (n.d.).
Writing Skills: Getting Your Message Across Clearly, Mind Tools
. Retrieved from
http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/WritingSkills.htm

Tartakovsky, M. (2014).
Tips for communicating assertively without being passive-aggressive
. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2014/06/04/5-tips-for-communicating-assertively-without-being-passive-aggressive

The Characteristics of Passive, Aggressive and Assertive Communication
. Retrieved from
https://www.dulwich-suzhou.cn/uploaded/DCSZ_meet_the_counselor/The_Characteristics_of_Passive,_Aggressive_and_Assertive_Communication.pdf


Accepting or allowing what happens or what others do, without active response or resistance
("Oxford Dictionaries", 2015).
Ready or likely to attack or confront; characterized by or resulting from aggression ("Oxford Dictionaries", 2015).
Having or showing a confident and
forceful personality ("Oxford Dictionaries", 2015).
Conclusion
When communicating, it is important to be aware of the different styles (verbal, non verbal and written) and delivery methods (passive, aggressive and assertive) to ensure the message is conveyed and understood in the manner it was intended.

How we communicate affects the people around us.
Think before speaking, writing or acting and be confident in the approach in order to produce the desired results.

This presentation will focus on three different communication styles:
Verbal
Non verbal
Written
We will also explore the
delivery methods for each style.

These are:
Passive
Aggressive
Assertive
Selecting the most appropriate communication style for the audience is crucial. Failure to do so may result in hurt feelings, unease, mistrust, confusion, frustration, disappointment or indifference.
Some of the characteristics for non-verbal communication include:

It is said that 55% of communication is body language, 38% is the tone of voice, and 7% is the actual words spoken (Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967).

Body Movements
Facial Expressions
Eye Contact
Posture
Personal Space
Physiological changes
They are most likely to use informal writing styles such as shopping lists, text messages and post it notes. These are simple and neutral messages with no demands or requests, simply statements.
An aggressive communicator has little or no thought for the person they are directing their issue to.

They are direct in their communication but are
self righteous and harsh in their manner,
leaving the receiver with feelings of hurt or anger.
(University of Iowa 2015)

Aggressive writing styles often involve poor punctuation as the communicator has little to no interest in who the reader is and little care is taken on what they perceive to be 'trivial details'.
Aggressive communicators often write or type in CAPITAL LETTERS so it appears they are shouting.
It may be done:
Someone being passive would also demonstrate one or more of the following characteristics:
hesitation
head down
no eye contact
covering arms
Passive communicators often use verbs
as opposed to adjectives (Minkoff & Katz 1973)
Assertive
Written Communicators
An assertive communicator uses a writing style
that is clear and direct.
The information conveyed is structured in a style suited for the intended audience with key points either in
bold
, underlined or
italics
.
Assertive communicators know when to use formal writing styles as in a business report or grant for funding as opposed to an informal writing style such as an email to a friend or a memo. (Jackson, 2015)
Assertive written communicators work well with others, providing collaborative feedback and searching for ways to achieve a situation where all parties are satisfied. (Tartakovsky 2014)


This type of communication takes the focus off the communicator because they wish to please other people and avoid any conflict thereby putting their own needs last.

Communication will be portrayed with a soft voice which shows no confidence and low self-esteem.
Communication will be unclear and tone of voice will lack conviction and be dull and boring. Communicator will apologise frequently and will dismiss their own thoughts again putting themselves last.
The communicator will show self doubt and portray negative feelings regarding their own thoughts and ideas


This type of communication puts all the focus on the communicator and of them being the winner.
The communicator speaks in a way that gives the perception that they think their own needs are the
most important.
An aggressive verbal communicator
will use threats and put downs.

Communication or language is
often inappropriate and violates the rights of the other person

Assertive communication is about showing confidence in an appropriate manner. This type of communication puts all the focus on high
self-esteem and is the most effective form of communication.

Communication will be portrayed with a medium volume with speed and pitch also to match. Communication will be sincere and clear. Communicator will use constructive criticism and seek opinions of others and be willing to come up with alternative ideas and solutions.

An assertive communicator
will show empathy and be cooperative
of others.
Communication is open, honest and
doesn’t violate the other person’s rights
(Dulwich College Suzhou. (n.d.).)
The Assertive non-verbal communicator is strong and clear in their communication.
This would be demonstrated by using a combination of characteristics such as relaxed and open body language and gestures, making direct eye contact with the audience, upright posture and
speak in a clear moderated firm voice to get their point across (Andersen, 2008).
closed body language,
rapid gestures,
staring at someone,
rushing towards person
appearing angry.
The aggressive non-verbal communicator is forceful in their approach.
Types of Nonverbal Communication
. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/nonverbalcommunication/a/nonverbaltypes.htm

University of Iowa, 2015.
A Comparison of assertive, non-assertive and aggressive communication
. Retrieved from http://counseling.studentlife.uiowa.edu/self-help/a-comparison-of-non-assertive-and-aggressive-communication

Warner, J. (2012).
Adopting the right style and tone in business writing: Ready to Manage
. Retrieved from
http://blog.readytomanage.com/adopting-the-right-style-and-tone-in-business-writing

(2015)
Oxford Dictionaries
. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/.

Mehrabian, A. Ferris, S. (1967).
Mehrabian’s communication study
. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/behaviors/body_language/mehrabian.htm
Written communication is conveying information using words, pictures or diagrams. (Prozesky, D. 2000)
It is said that 55% of communication is body language,
38% is the tone of voice, and 7% is the actual words spoken (Mehrabian & Ferris, 1967).

Image source:
http://www.cleversmithwriting.com/
Image source: http://www.skipcohenuniversity.com/scu-blog/one-step-at-a-time-step-11-written-communication
Both sender and receiver must be able to understand the message in order for it to be effective (Warner.J 2012)
Verbal communication is the sharing of information by speaking.
Passive
Verbal Communication
Aggressive
Verbal Communication
Assertive
Verbal Communication
Passive communicators tend to dislike
unwanted attention.
Image sourced from: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-byRynRs-f9w/TdU1d1pAA_I/AAAAAAAAACg/iRXOJGG6AuQ/s1600/communi.jpg
Image sourced from http://cliparts.co/cliparts/kT8/okL/kT8okLdGc.jpg
Image sourced from: https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQl3h0GkdyHkDK7zcVD5k0AHBGjEHGizMzPFVXoMXlJU9ywZVN4lQ
via technology
such as Skype or Facetime
or in person, face to face.
over the telephone,

Images sourced from: https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSbtXowl8JhsJ41XyRH6P2XQvXZd-Iwc0z0ULHPgrN6cQHHxNMt
Full transcript