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Cold War - Vietnam War
Transcript of Cold War - Vietnam War
Cold War - Vietnam War
The presidents during the Cold War were Harry Truman, Dwight D Eisenhower, John F Kennedy, and Lyndon B Johnson.
The end of World War ll stirred suspicion and paranoia against communism within countries around the world. The Cold War was a stand off between the United States and the USSR. Although there was no direct military confrontation between the two countries, people feared nuclear escalation. This war led to the end of communism and destructive conflicts, like those that took place in Vietnam and Korea.
Truman Doctrine 1947
Marshall Plan 1947
Eisenhower Doctrine 1957
-Capitalistic U.S refused to officially recognize the Soviet Union’s communist government
-By maintaining an extensive Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern and Central Europe, the USSR could protect itself and consolidate its revolutionary base as the world’s leading communist country
-To many Americans, the “sphere of influence” looked like an ill-gained empire
-Stalin’s emphasis on spheres also clashed with Franklin Roosevelt’s dream of an “open world’, decolonized, demilitarized, and democratized.
-The Marshall plan
-Truman officially recognized Israel in May 14, 1948.
-The Truman administration decided to join the European pact-NATO.
22nd Amendment- 2 term limit
Presidents and Platforms
Harry Truman- had a large role in returning
the economy to a stable base after WWll
Dwight Eisenhower- brought about an era
of upward momentum with regards to the economy.
John F Kennedy- believed the best way to
gain full employment was to increase government spending with federal aid to the people.
Lyndon B Johnson- believed in "The Great
Society." Reduced unemployment by 1% and increased industrial production.
Taft-Hartley Act 1947
Interstate Highway Act 1956
Landon-Griffin Act 1959
Trade Expansion Act 1962
Civil Rights Movement
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
24th Amendment 1964
Abolished poll tax in federal elections
Tonkin Gulf Resolution 1964
National Defense and Education Act 1958
Civil Rights Act 1964
Voting Rights Act 1965
Immigration & Nationality Act 1965
Death of a Salesman
- Miller 1949 (American Values)
East of Eden
- Steinbeck 1952 (portrayals of American Society)
-Miller 1953 (Witchcraft)
The Naked and the Dead
- Mailer 1948
(Soldiers life in wwII)
-Heller 1961 (American airmen in the wartime)
For the Union Dead
- Lowell 1964
(Wisdom of the Puritan past)
A Raisin in the Sun
- Hansberry 1959 (African-American; south side of Chicago
I Have a Dream
- MLK Jr. 1963 (civil rights movement)
-Vidal 1968 (transgender)
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
Little Rock 1957
Freedom Riders 1961
March on Washington 1963
Freedom Summer 1964
First large passenger jet 1957
First Presidential jet 1959
Nuclear Arms Race
-The Soviet troops controlled the territory north of the 38th parallel on the Korean peninsula and American troops controlled the South
-In 1948 rival governments were established: The Republic of Korea was proclaimed in the South and the People's Democratic Republic of Korea in the North.
-The Chinese communists publicly warned that they would not sit idly and watch hostile troops approach the Yalu River boundary between Korea and China
-On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army attacked South Korea.
-Truman now ordered a massive military buildup.
-The United Nations Security Council called upon all U.N members, including the U.S, to restore peace.
-Two days later, without consulting Congress, Truman ordered American air and naval units to support South Korea.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when the armistice agreement was signed. The agreement restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ),
-Gulf of Tonkin Incident - U.S destroyer was attacked by a North Vietnamese torpedo boat
-Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- gave U.S president authorization to increase military presence.
-Tet Offensive - surprise attacks on South Vietnam.
-Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973
Harry Truman- First president to address the NAACP, desegregated
the armed forces, and reduced government job discrimination.
Dwight D Eisenhower- Passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957/1960,
ended segregation in Washington D.C. and on military bases, sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce Brown vs. Board of Education.
Lyndon B Johnson- Passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting
Rights Act of 1965, and the Economic Opportunity Act. He also appointed Thurgood Marshall to Supreme Court and passed 60 educational laws.
-Anti war demonstrations
Supreme Court Decisions
-Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)- protecting women’s abortion rights.
-Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) -all defendants in serious criminal cases were entitled to legal counsel. Cases of Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966)- ensured the right of the accused to remain silent
-New York Times vs. Sullivan (1964)- public figures could sue for libel only if they prove that “malice” had motivated their defamers
-Engel vs. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp (1963) -voted against required prayers and Bible readings in public schools.
Dwight D Eisenhower was the first to enter into conflicts in Vietnam. The Vietnam War continued on throughout the presidencies of John F Kennedy, Lyndon B Johnson, and ended during Richard Nixon's term in the White House.
The Cold War inspired Americans to
buy consumer good to support the capitalistic views of Americans.
The Korean War cost America billions of dollars
but boosted the GDP growth through government spending.
The Vietnam War was not only a blow to US confidence, but also considered a huge waste of money and resources.
The tensions between the USSR and the United States in the Cold War led to the Vietnam War. Rather than fighting each other, the used smaller, less militarized countries to fight for them instead. The effects of the war included a large number of lost lives, social changes against war, and a loss of self-confidence among Americans.
President Harry Truman was in the White House during the Korean conflict. Truman was worried that the USSR would spread its communist beliefs into other countries, and believed the best way to prevent that was to intervene.
Great Society: Social reform, gave office of Economic Opportunity $2 bill and $1 billion to rebuild Appalachia. 2 new cabinet offices: Department of Transportation and HUD. Lifted the level of AM cultural life. Education Bill gave aid to education. Medical care for elderly, immigration reform and new voting rights bill. Medicare and Medicaid for the poor and for the elderly
Sit in’s/Desegregation: African Americans and College boys would protest segregation by sitting in the whites only section in restaurants and would refuse to get up. Schools, restaurants and other public facilities began to open up to African Americans
Counter Culture: Opposed to traditional American ways- Students for a Democratic Society- spawned an underground terrorist group called the Weathermen. Urban riots started as experiments with drugs but led to hippies
Women’s Movement: Women had more job opportunities in the electric and service work. Did a dual role as workers and homemakers. The pink-collar ghetto were the dominated jobs by women
Sexual Revolution: Birth control pill in 1960. Dr. Kinsey published two books about sexual behaviors. Premarital sex and adultery is much more common and 10% of males are homosexual
In Los Angeles in 1951 many came to advocate for gay rights. 1969, off duty police officers attacked gay men at New York Stonewall Inn which energized gay and lesbian militancy.
Social reform, gave office of Economic Opportunity $2 bill and $1 billion to rebuild Appalachia. 2 new cabinet offices: Department of Transportation and HUD. Lifted the level of AM cultural life. Education Bill gave aid to education. Medical care for elderly, immigration reform and new voting rights bill. Medicare and Medicaid for the poor and for the elderly
Bay of Pigs: April 17, 1961 some 1200 exiles landed at Cuba’s Bay of Pigs. President Kennedy had decided against direct intervention and the aircraft of the anti. Catroites were no match for Castro’s air force so the anti-Castro’s had to surrender. Kennedy assumed full responsibility. This pushed the Cuban leader further into the Soviet embrace. Khrushchev took little time in taking advantage of his Cuban comrade’s position 90 miles off Florida’s coast. In October 1962, American spies saw soviets speedily installing nuclear tipped missiles in Cuba and were intending to use them to black mail the US to back down in Berlin and other trouble spots. Led to Cuban Missile Crisis!
began when Senator Joseph McCarthy made a public accusation that more than 200 communists had infiltrated the American government
House Un-American Activities Committee was formed in 1938 as an anti-communist organization. Brutal trial led by Joseph McCarthy which interrogated people, looking for communist-like behavior or association
Went on mostly in Hollywood and focused on entertainers and writers. These people were labeled “communist sympathizers, which made it very difficult for them to resume working.
Among the accused were Charlie Chaplin (actor) and Arthur Miller (author of ‘Death of a Salesman” and “The Crucible”)
Causes of growth:
-desire to leave decaying cities
William Levitt promoted suburban growth and applied the techniques of mass production to suburban areas. It took 27 different teams of builders to help manufacture the suburban area he created outside of Long Island, New York
The irrational need to "keep up with the Joneses" was born in the American suburb. shopping centers and fast food restaurants added to the convenience of suburban life. Thousands and thousands migrated to suburbia.
More babies were born in 1946 than ever before: 3.4 million, 20 percent more than in 1945. In 1947, another 3.8 million babies were born; 3.9 million were born in 1952; and more than 4 million were born every year from 1954 until 1964, when the boom finally tapered off. By then, there were 76.4 million “baby boomers” in the United States. They made up almost 40 percent of the nation’s population.
In 1940, the average American woman got married when she was almost 22 years old; in 1956, the average American woman got married when she was just 20. And just 8 percent of married women in the 1940s opted not to have children, compared to 15 percent in the 1930s
Nuclear War Scare
-Germany split into two. Western Germany became an independent country, but Eastern Germany became a "satellite state" bound to the Soviet Union.
-Soviet occupation forces began a blockade of all rail and highway access between Berlin and West
-On June 26 the United States and Britain began to supply the city with food and other vital supplies by air
-Soviets lifted the blockade in may 1949
During the Cold War, Russia and the United States were having an arms race to see who could build the best weapon fastest. Now that the enemy also had the weapon, no amount of propaganda could convince Americans that there was no threat. There was an environment of fear within the nation. People had built shelters in their backyards in an attempt to prepare for the worst. Scientist and the governments realized that there was a very low chance of an actual bombing due to mutual destruction to both sides.
Rock and Roll
Resulted from the convulsion of Rhythm and Blues and Country. Inspired by the music of the Harlem Renaissance. New innovations with the vinyl record also advanced the interest in music, and therefore, rock and roll. The band, Bill Haley and his Comets as well as Elvis Presley both brought significant country backgrounds to their rock and roll.
Jobs were plentiful, wages were higher, and because of the lack of consumer goods during the war, Americans were eager to spend. After World War II, consumer spending no longer meant just satisfying an indulgent material desire. In fact, the American consumer was praised as a patriotic citizen in the 1950s, contributing to the ultimate success of the American way of life. Americans invested in items based around home and family life. At war's end, the items people most desired included televisions, cars, washing machines, refrigerators, toasters, and vacuum cleaners
Truman's Fair Deal
• Intended to enact policies consistent with Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
-improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm supports, and an extension of social security
-Fell victim to a congressional opposition from Republicans and southern Democrats
Cuban Missile Crisis
- Kennedy decided to place a naval blockade around Cuba. The aim of this "quarantine" was to prevent the Soviets from bringing in more military supplies. He demanded the removal of the missiles already there and the destruction of the sites.
-Soviets agreed to dismantle the weapon sites in exchange for a pledge from the United States not to invade Cuba.
-Led to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
-Soviet scientists astounded the world by lofting into orbit two satelites, Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2
-This shattered American self-confidence
-"Rocket Fever" swept the nation and Eisenhower created NASA
-Also led to National Defense and Education Act
Brown v Board of Education - "separate but equal" was unconstitional
Supreme Court Decisions