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Botulinum Toxin

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Marion Causing

on 10 July 2011

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Transcript of Botulinum Toxin

Produced by the anaerobic bacterium, "Clostridium botulinum" Produced by the anaerobic bacterium: Clostridium botulinum Considered the most powerful neurotoxin ever discovered Seven types: A B C D E F G A B E affects human C D affect non-humans Toxin enters nerve endings and interferes with acetylcholine release, which causes a neuromuscular blocking effect Toxin consists of 2 chains: heavy chain and light chain Heavy chain  targets axon terminals
 toxin enters the neuron through endocytosis Light chain cleaves the vesicle, enters cytoplasm
cuts SNARE proteins (SNAP-25, syntaxin, and
Result: no dock for acetylcholine release; inhibited muscle contraction Routes of Exposure Foodborne botulism Intestinal/
infant botulism Adult infectious botulism Wound botulism Inhalation Botulism Disease Toxin is absorbed in the intestinal tract then travel via bloodstream or through an open wound then to the lymphatic system Toxin targets nerve endings and inhibit acetylcholine release Since the toxin acts on the cholinergic nerve fibers, a nerve fiber of the autonomic nervous system, paralysis begins with the cranial nerves, then affects the upper extremities, the respiratory muscles, and finally, the lower extremities in a proximal-to-distal pattern May lead to respiratory failure which can cause CO2 build up and consequently cause a depressant effect Individual has no onset of fever, maintains accurate memory and is in a state of consciousness Treatment Antitoxin Antibiotics Vaccine Temporarily treat furrows or frown lines (wrinkles) Main principle: inhibition of acetylcholine release to stop muscle contraction that causes wrinkles Takes about 3 to 7 days to take full effect Migraine Treatment Use MIGRAINE Severe headache that could last for hours up to days Pulsing or throbbing pain on one area of the head Pulsing or throbbing pain on one area of the head
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