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OCR A2 Changing Nature of Warfare

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Paul Griffin

on 23 July 2016

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Transcript of OCR A2 Changing Nature of Warfare

OCR study- The Changing Nature of Warfare 1792-1945 1792 1939-45 1914 Napoleon wins the Battle of Borodino but fails to take Russia Napoleon comes to power 1799 1812 Revolutionary Wars 1815 Wars in the Industrial Age The Second World War 1854-56 1859 1916 1918 Crimean War Franco-Austrian War Attempts to turn back the clock of warfare The Battle of the Somme Old exam questions Check list ... final pieces of advice 1. The Impact of factors directly related to the conduct of war: a) Generalship.
What is it (Key Factors), Examples, How/when/why/where/ does it change? Assessment of the impact of Generalship in period, Turning points?

2. … b) Quality of Soldiers:
Factors affecting (recruits backyard, training and morale), Examples, How/when/why/where/ does it change? Assessment of the impact of quality of soldiers in successes during the period, turning points?

3. … c) Weapons Technology:
What were they (+ roles), weaponry changes & new weapons, How/when/why/where/ does it change? Assessment of the impact of weaponry (+change) in successes during the period, turning points?

4. … d) Strategy & Tactics:
What do these words mean? Strategy & Tactics in 19th century, examples of change & continuity during the period, what were the very turning points? Assessment of the impact of new strategies & tactics.

5. The Impact of Technological Change: a) Industrialisation.
What does Industrialisation mean? Main methods of production and quantum produced in 18th Century. Examples of change and continuity during the period, what were the turning points? Assessment of the impact of Industrialisation on the nature of warfare as a whole (size of armies, firepower, appearance and scale of the battlefield, casualties, pace and result)

6. … b) Developments in communication & transport.
What does Communication mean? Main methods of communication and transport in 18th Century. Examples of change and continuity during the period, what were the turning points? Assessment of the impact of these changes on the nature of warfare as a whole.

7. Planning and Preparation
What does ‘Planning and Preparation’ mean? How was warfare planned and prepared for in the 18th Century? How, why, where and by how much did this change? (And if it stayed the same, when, how and why?) Assess the impact of planning and preparation. Consider its relationship to victory in wars and battles across the period

8. The Effectiveness of Alliances
What is an Alliance? What different types are there? What Alliances were there in the 18th Century and how effective were they? What changed either in the nature of alliances or in their effectiveness during the period?
Assess the overall impact of Alliances during the period and its relationship to victory in warfare.

9. The relationship between relevant domestic factors & warfare: a) The organisation of the state for war
What does ‘Organisation of the State for War,’ mean? How were states organised for war in the 18th Century. What changed either in the nature of State’s Organisation or in the quantum of organisation during the period?
Assess the overall impact of State’s organisation on warfare.


10. … b) Public Opinion
What is Public Opinion? How does it impact on warfare? What public opinion was there and how did it impact on warfare in the 18th century? What changed during the period and why? What impact(s) did these changes have?

11. … c) Conscription
What is conscription? How were military forces raised in the 18th Century? What changed (how, where, why and by how much) during the period? What was the impact domestically? Assess its importance to victory and also assess the impact of these changes on warfare itself.

12. … d) Resources
What are resources in warfare? What were the resources used and how in the 18th Century? What changed? What further resources became necessary, how, where and why? What was the impact of these changes domestically? What relationship (and how/where/why did it change) was there between resources and victory in war? Use these questions to guide revision When you get into the exam, don't panic!
Read the questions carefully and make sure that you know which one would be best to answer.
Sketch out a quick essay plan and get started. Make sure you leave enough time to add a really good conclusion and spend a equal amount of time on each question. The First World War The French Revolutionaries execute Louis XVI causing war throughout Europe 1864-71 Wars of German unification Political warfare Position warfare Armoured warfare 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War Topics 1. Factors directly relating to war 2. Technological change 3. Planning and preparation 4. Relationship between war and domestic factors Generalship Soldier quality Tactics and strategy Total war Industrialisation Communication and transport Developing weaponry Alliances Control and command of armies Organisation of state Public opinion Conscription Economics 1861-65 American Civil War Waterloo- watch out for infantry squares, column attacks and responses to Napoleon's style of battle. Crimea Franco-Prussian Anglo-Zulu War American Civil War Comparison of Grant and Lee Gettysburg First World War Impact on ordinary life Battle of Verdun Battle of the Somme Battle of Marne and trench warfare Second World War Napoleonic Example exam answer Picking out themes When writing answers for this unit it is really important to write in themes and not chronologically. This will help you to make links, pick out similarities and differences etc. There is no set formular for this but there are some general pieces of advice which can help.

When a question asks "How far" or "To what extent" you are expected to analyse both sides of an argument. E.g. "How far did public opinion influence conflict?" should have judgements which look at the impacts and the limitations of a particular topic. This can often be done by comparing that factor with other factors.

When a question asks "Was ..... the most important factor?" it is essential to compare with other factors.

When dealing with questions which look at "determining factors", a good approach could be...
1. Wars where (factor) did determine the outcome
2. Wars where (factor) only contributed to the outcome
3. Wars where (factor) did not contribute to victory
4. The influence and impact of other factors to victory

Remember, there is no set approach so you will need to think on your feet. Spend 30 seconds really looking at the question working ou exactly what it is talking about.
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