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Science Genetics Assignment
Transcript of Science Genetics Assignment
There is a greater amount of albinos in people of sub-Saharan African descent. Year 10 Science Holiday Homework Genetics Assignment Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects the skin and eyes of mammals. The disease causes melanin, an important chemical that helps shield the skin and eyes from ultraviolet rays, to be impossible to produce (in most cases). This causes the afflicted to have little or no skin pigmentation and a discolouring of the eyes due to the absence of melanin. Albino squirell Superstitions: Related Disorders: 'Whiteface': a condition that affects parrot species, caused by lack of psittacins (melanin structure for parrots). 'Axanthism': common in reptiles, results in loss of red and yellow pigments. 'Leucism': a form of albinism where the eyes retain their usul colour. 'Melanism': the opposite of albinism, where the mammal has an unusually high level of melanin pigments, and are darker coloured than others of the same species. People could carry the recessive albinism genes without suffering the disease; this means that there is the chance of a couple who do not have the condition having an albino child. Albinos are not sterile; they are fully capable of reproducing. It is estimated that every one in 70 people carry the recessive gene, and every one in 17,000 people have the condition. Both Type 1 and Type 2 albinism conditions can be inherited. Humans are also affected by the disease. Albinos aren't always completely white with red eyes; there are a lot of variations of albinism, where the albino might have different variants of pale colour in the eyes, skin and fur/hair. Type 1 Albinism: Type 2 Albinism There are two main variants of albinism; Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 albinism is also called hypomelanism, or hypemelanosis, and is different from Type 2 in that the melanin in the body is only partially absent. This explains the variety of pale colour in albinos. Type 1 Albinism is more common than Type 2, with the one in 17,000 people having Type 1 albinism, and one in 32,000 people with Type 2 albinism. Type 2 Albinism, also known as amelanism or amelanosis, is different from Type 1 in that the melanin in the body is completely absent. Type 2 albinos, since they have no melanin at all, are completely pale with no variation. Famous Albinos: Conclusion: Genetic abnormalities: Can you find all the hidden faces? Albinism in Mammals The gene for albinism is genetically recessive, which means that even if you have the gene for albinism in your chromosomes, it can be blocked by another gene that is dominant over it. Type 1 Type 2 Other forms The gene for forms of albinism is called OCA for Oculocutaneous Albinism. Oculocutaneous: relating to or affecting both the eyes and skin. (OCA1b) (OCA1a) Bibliography: http://www.visionfortomorrow.org/genetics-of-albinism/
http://kidshealth.org/kid/health_problems/skin/albinism.html Emporor Seinei (believed to be albino), the 22nd emperor of Japan. Albinism is a common genetic disorder that affects all mammals, affecting 1 in every 17,000 humans and countless more animals. Albinism is survivable, but it often comes with eye disabilities and affects social behaviours. Mammals with albinism have a decreased survivability rate due to the absence of camouflage. There is no way to treat albinism, but there are ways to improve the lives of people with the condition. White skin and fur. Discoloured eyes. Treatment: There is currently no treatment for albinism, although there are ways to improve the lives of albinos, including eye surgery to remove the common ailments of the eye that albinos suffer, for example nystagmus, strabismus and astigmatism. Glasses and other visual aids, large print and angled lights can help albinos with their visual impairments. There are a few horrible myths surrounding albinism, mainly in third world countries uneducated about the disease. In many African countries, witchdoctors are believed to use albino body parts in their potions. Many albino murders in Tanzania are attributed to the selling of these body parts to witchdoctors for a high price. There are certain ethnic groups that are more susceptible to albinism, including two North American tribes, Japan (with its own form of albinism) and Ukerewe island. Another harmful African myth is that intercourse with an albino woman will cure a man of HIV, leading to many cases of rape in Zimbabwe. Albinism is deadly for mammals, as it ruins camouflage for the animal, making it an easier target for predators. Some forms of albinism, though, are found to be a part of the species, like the whitface parrot or the albino axolotl. Albinism discolours the eyes of the animal as well, impairing their vision and making them more vulnerable. Sailif Keita Winter Brothers William Archibald Spooner Victor Varnado Shaun Ross (Male Model) (TV Star) (Famous Musicians) (Famous African Singer) (Inventor of Spoonerisms)