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Geography of Canada - Concept Map
Transcript of Geography of Canada - Concept Map
Canada and World Studies
Unit One Agenda - Geography Skills
- Grids (Alphanumeric and Military)
- Compass (Directions)
- Bearings (Degrees)
- Map symbols
- 3 Map types
- Branches of Geography
- What is a map?
- Provinces and Territories
Unit Three Agenda - Physical Connections
- 7 Landform Regions
- 15 ecozones
- Climate and weather
- Soil profiles
- Human activity
- Mountains and the Rock cycle
- Climate graphs
- Geologic History
THANK YOU FOR WATCHING MY SUMMATIVE PREZI!
A simple systematic grid of numbers and letters composed to make finding the general location of an object easier. Alphanumeric grids are not extremely specific, but they can successfully give a non-specific location.
A more complex systematic grid composed of numbers and a relative location of an item from a scale of 1 to a number. If used properly, military grids give a precise location of an item or object.
The Three Branches of Geography:
The study of human actions on the Earth, and the influence they have on the planet and the environment.
The branch of geography focusing in the study of physical features in the environment.
The application of sciences and technology into the study of geography. This could involve online and computer-related activities like online maps.
What is Geography?
The word Geography is derived from the Greek words geo and graphos, meaning Earth study.
Geography is the study of the Earth. Geography is commonly used in everyday life.
example of a military grid
A compass is a magnetized circular tool that when used properly can give directions. The directions on a compass are North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, and West. Some compasses have even more specific directions such as North-Northeast, East-Northeast, etc. This example of a compass rose includes dots where the most specific directions would go.
Bearings are a measurement of direction given in the degrees of a compass. For example, North is zero degrees, because it is the first direction given on a compass. The direction's degrees go up as the compass goes around clockwise.
Latitude and Longitude
Points or specific locations on Earth are measured in lines of latitude and longitude. Latitude runs horizontally (from side to side), and longitude runs vertically (up and down), around the planet. Latitude and Longitude also determine time zones. Certain habitats in certain areas would see the sun and the moon at the same time, but differently from other people in other zones. On Earth, there is a Prime Meridian in which the time never goes forward or backwards an hour. The prime meridian is in Greenwich, England.
Latitude: The horizontal lines going around the Earth.
Longitude: The vertical lines going around the Earth.
Combined, latitude and longitude provide a combination of degrees that give a person the exact location of a country, town, or even house or restaurant. Latitude is shown and measured in degrees.
The Three Types of Maps
: A topographic map is a kind of map from bird's eye view that uses a variety of large scale details such as lines, colours, shapes and symbols to represent different materials and features in a specific piece of land. Both man made and natural features are represented on these maps.
: Thematic maps are meant to show data with a specific geographic theme. A thematic map may have different symbols to show where a population is large or small, or how long the life expectancy is in a country or region. Thematic maps show data organized by theme and are often based on population, politics, or other world statistics.
: Road maps are maps used commonly for directions of travellers. Road maps have labelled streets and attractions so that people can make their way around without getting lost.
all map examples credit to prezi's image finder
Topographic Map Example
Thematic Map Example
Road Map Example
What is a map?
A map is a very well known geographical tool that has many different purposes to help the different needs of people. Maps are:
- usually either online or on paper and are not just pictures
- some form of different colours or symbols that represent certain landmarks
- cartographers are the people that make maps
Scales are a tool used on maps that let the viewer of the map have a sense of what amount of space in real life is equal to the amount of space in the actual region they are viewing. There are three types of scales that can be used when creating a map.
A line scale is a scale shown through the measurement of equal increments. It shows how the given increments are equal to a specific amount in the country/region on the map.
A direct statement scale is a scale in which the cartographer would directly state what the scale is. E.g: One centimetre equals one thousand kilometres.
A ratio scale is the shortest scale of the three options. The contents of a ratio scale are two numbers and a colon, making it simple and easy to read. Ratio is a system derived from mathematics.
Canada's Provinces and Territories
Canada as a country is made up of 10 provinces and 3 territories. All of these provinces have their own provincial governments and all have very different populations and available resources.
- Newfoundland and Labrador
- Nova Scotia
- New Brunswick
- Prince Edward Island
- British Columbia
- Northwest Territories
- Saint John's
- Quebec City
The Capital City of Canada is Ottawa, and Ottawa is located in Ontario.
Unit Two Agenda - Global Connections
- 3 classifications of countries (development)
- GDP: Gross Domestic Product – how much the goods and services produced in a country in a year are worth
- Levels of Industry
- HDI: Human Development Index. It measures life expectancy, literacy rate, and GDP. The higher the HDI, the safer the country is to live.
- HDI vs GDP
- Life Expectancy: how long a person will\has live(d)
- Trade and trade relationships
- WTO (world organization)
- NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
- G7, G8, G20
- Foreign Aid: NGO, CIDA
- Military: United Nations, NATO, Canada vs USA, UN Security Council
- Trade Deficits and Sirpluses
- Made in Bangladesh (foreign manufacturing)
The Three Types of Nations
- very poor
- usually conflicted with other countries or in war
- corrupt government
- little infrastructure
- most jobs are in farming
- very low education and literacy rates
- life expectancy is usually in 40's or 50's
- low standard of living
- low GDP and GDP per capita
examples: Rwanda, Somalia, Uganda, Liberia
- some poor some rich
- average standard of living
- life expectancy is in the late 60's and 70's
- many jobs in manufacturing
- possibly corrupt government but citizens usually get to vote
- education system, but sometimes people have to pay to attend
- average GDP
examples: Mexico, Pakistan, China
- established education system that is free until a certain point in time
- life expectancy is in the 70's and 80's
- government provided health care system
- stable government
- stable economy
-most jobs in sales and the tertiary industry
- high GDP and GDP per capita
examples: Canada, UK, Sweden, Norway
corresponding capital cities will line up with the province/territory!
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
GDP is the measure of how much a country is worth based on the amount of goods and services produced in that country within a year.
GDP Per Capita
GDP per capita is a country's GDP divided up so that there are equal shares for every person in the population.
= GDP per capita
Although GDP per capita is a simple way to estimate the average wealth of a country, it is sometimes not accurate because some people are very rich and some are very poor.
HDI - Human Development Index
HDI is a better and more accurate measure of living standards and wealth than GDP.
- life expectancy
- literacy rate
The higher the life expectancy, literacy rate and GDP, the better a country generally is to live.
-higher life expectancy means there is more available healthcare.
-higher literacy rate means more established education system
- GDP measures the total wealth of a country based on goods and services produced in a year
source: making connections textbook
HDI vs. GDP
HDI is a more accurate measure of wealth across the Earth's nations.
- how long an average person in a country is expected to live in years
- the amount of people in a population who are considered literate
These calaculated rates give a person an indication of
standard of living
in a country.
The Three Types of Industry
the level of industry in which raw materials are extracted from the earth. (e.g mining, fishing, logging)
The level of industry where the extracted raw materials are sent to factories and then made into material useful for humans. (e.g car manufacturing, clothing manufacturing)
The level of industry where the now manufactured goods are offered into a service. This includes sales, teaching, being a lawyer or even a dentist.
The Fourth Type of Industry
There is a quaternary industry, which includes research, information and technology. The quaternary industry is mainly intellectual and used with technology and consultancy.
- trade from another country that is not involved with extra taxes or tariffs
- a country taking in goods from another country (comes in)
- what a country trades to another country (goes out)
- when a country makes the price of foreign goods higher to keep industry within their own country and economy
- taxes put on imported items
- not included in free trade (see first definition)
WTO - World Trade Organization
- A private organization that promotes strengthening worldwide trading connections between countries
NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement
- A free trade agreement between Canada, he USA, and Mexico.
- what happens when a country's imports are more valuable than their exports, and they lose money
Foreign aid is a massive factor in the future of the world's global development. It is given from one country to another when one country has recently been hit by a disaster.
In Canada, the CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) decides how much money a country in need would recieve to help their disaster recovery.
Disasters that recieve aid include:
CIDA believes it is more sustainable
to send human resources and supplies
than just money.
and any other natural or human-caused disaster
that displaces people in mass amounts.
- Japan earthquake and nuclear explosion, 2011
- Haiti earthquake 2010
Sometimes NGOs (Non-governmental organizations) assist other countries with foreign aid as well.
World Summits: G8 & G20
The G8 summit is a gathering othe 8 most economically powerful countries in the world. At these gatherings, the leaders of these countries discuss their economies and how to boost trade levels.
The G20 summit has the same purpose as the G8 summit, only it includes the 20 most economically powerful countries in the world instead of only 8.
This year's G8 Summit took place in Sochi, Russia. However, due to Russia's actions in the Ukraine, the remaining 7 leaders met in Brussels, Belgium instead.
The United Nations
The United Nations is a united group of over 200 countries that was set up after the Second World War.
As a whole, they:
- promote peace
- promote security
- decide on how to act in countries at war
- promote unity as citizens of the world
information credit to: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/United-Nations
If you want to learn more about the UN, click the following link to their official website.
UN Security Council
The UN Security council is a council consisting of 15 members total: 5 permanent and 10 elected for 2 year terms.
- Russian Federation
- United Kingdom
- United States
- Argentina (2014)
- Australia (2014)
- Chad (2015)
- Chile (2015)
- Jordan (2015)
- Lithuania (2015)
- Luxembourg (2014)
- Nigeria (2015)
- Republic of Korea (2014)
- Rwanda (2014)
A single representative from every country has
- the power to say no to any action that takes place anywhere. If one country vetoes a bill, the bill is trashed.
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO is described as a "political and military alliance" between countries in the north Atlantic.
Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.
gives participating countries a chance to discuss worldwide security and military issues.
is very open-concept and allows military experts and civilians to come in and share their information and ideas.
a very unique human resource to the world.
Canada vs. USA
- every country has a different military system
- Canada's military is very different from the USA's military
- the USA's military is much larger than Canada's
- Canada's military is still very important, but in some ways they are like a "sidekick" to the US
The 7 Landform Regions of Canada
Western Cordillera, Appalachian Mountains, Innuition Mountains
3 Types of Landforms
Highland, Lowland and Shield
Great Lakes Saint Lawrence Lowlands, Interior Plains, Hudson's Bay Arctic Lowlands
are more specific regions than landforms because they are smaller, and there are
of them instead of
Arctic Basin (Marine)
Northwest Atlantic (Marine)
Arctic Archipelago (Marine)
Canada's 15 Ecozones
imformation source: http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/ecozones.htm
Cross Section Of Canada
Left: Young mountains, newly formed and still pointed.
Middle: Plains. Flattened during the last ice age by a giant glacier.
Right: Appalachian mountains. Rounded and eroded over time.
The Rock Cycle
The rock cycle shows how rocks are formed.
Heat and Pressure
Sedimentary Rock (layered)
Igneous Rock (volcanic)
cools and hardens
The Three Types of Mountains
- formed when 2 plates crash together and fold into each other
- formed when 2 plates come together
- one plate goes on top, one goes underneath
- layers of rock build up over time
- magma stays undernath in the volcano
Mountains get colder in temperature as they go up, so more grows at the bottom of mountains than the top.
In this picture:
- trees grow at the bottom of the mountain
-there appears to be more soil at the bottom of the mountain
-there is no obvious vegetation on the mountain's top
example of a climate graph
Climate graphs are a statistical way of showing patterns in climate in a specific area.
They show specific details like:
- average temperature
- months with snow
- growing season
- An average of every collected temperature from an area in a specific amount of time
The temperatures for a week in April were (In celsius)
9, 12, 13, 10, 9
The average would be
Months With Snow
- measured in months
- any month with an average of 5 degrees Celsius or higher
- Temperatures below zero degrees with some form of precipitation shown
Factors That Affect Climate
- Latitude & Longitude
- Near water
- Relief and wind
- Ocean currents
The Three Climate Profiles
- cold and wet, climate is constantly cold
- wet but warm climate, lots of precipitation
- does not border oceans, but can be warm and cold
- measures patterns over time
- records things like growing season and months with snow
- constantly changing
- does not follow a specific trend
There are many different soil classifications in Canada, and the soil most suitable for growing is constantly being paved over for development.
In general, Canada does not have extremely good soil to grow agricultural products.
Soil is separated into 8 classes:
Class 1 -
best available soil
Class 2 -
second best available soil
Class 3 -
suitable growing soil
Class 4 -
not very suitable
Class 5 -
not very suitable
Class 6 -
barely suitable for any crops
Class 7 -
not suitable for growing anything
Class 0 -
summary of soils from: http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/nsdb/cli/classdesc.html
There are four layers of types of soil in the ground.
the layer on which grass grows
a moist layer of soil made up of decomposed matter
the moist layer of compact soil beneath the humus
the rocky layer of soil that provides hard support for things growing on top of it
Soil and Vegetation
- the better the soil, the better vegetation will grow
- this includes grass, food products, and trees
- the poorer quality the soil, the harder it will be to grow crops
Adding Climate to the Mix
In summary, Climate and Soil are the two biggest factors that affect vegetation.
- How warm or cool a place is at specific times of the year affects how things grow.
- Coniferous trees are known to grow in cold climates
- they stay green all year round
- commonly known as "evergreen trees"
- grow in warmer climates
- bloom in the spring, leaves fall off in the fall
The Tree Line
The tree line is the specific point in which it becomes too cold for trees to grow.
As trees get closer to the tree line they get smaller and smaller because it is too cold for them to grow.
Another plant growth factor similar to the tree line consists of shrub and plant growth.
Small shrubs and grasses that grow close to the ground and spread out rather than growing up will grow in cold climates.
Taller trees and things that grow up rather than out grow in warmer climates.
Human Activity and Climate
- Over time, human activity has changed global climate
- The change has happened very quickly due to the excessive amount of toxins and chemicals released into the air as well as deforestation
- Earth's population has gone up rapidly, making amounts of required natural materials (gas, metals, food) much greater than they were even 30 years ago
All of this has caused something called
Global warming is constantly changing the climate, making some areas around the globe hotter, and dryer than they have ever been before.
Geologic Time Periods
There are four geologic time periods that geologists and scientists use to measure activity on Earth.
- started with the Earth's creation 4.5 billion years ago
- this era created many rocks used today
- era of the dinoasurs
- human era
Unit Four Agenda - Human Connections
- Native connections
- Immigration vs. emigration
- Push and pull factors
- Demographics - what are they?
- Population - what is it?
- What is a census?
- Baby boom & echo boom
- Urban vs. rural
- Land use
- Population maps
- Ecumene & Infrastructure
Canada and Aboriginal Culture - Native Connections
Canada has a lot of cultural diversity, and this includes the diversity within Canada's Aboriginal cultures.
In the past, Canada used a method of educating Aboriginal children from across the country that involved residential schools. However, these schools were abusive and had horrible effects on the native children of Canada.
Children in residential schools were forced to:
- leave their families behind with no warning
- communicate strictly in English only
- practice a new Christian religon
- leave behind all of their native cultures, including dress and traditional rituals
Overall, these children were seen as "savages" and were forced to identify by a completely new and unfamiliar culture. The last school was closed in 1996.
"Over 150,000 First Nation, Métis and Inuit children attended these schools between 1857 and 1996." - http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1302882353814/1302882592498
- when a person comes into a country
- when a person leaves a country
Both immigration and emigration come with Push and Pull Factors.
- what could make someone want to leave a country
- corrupt government
- discrimination or persecution of any kind (e.g religious, racial)
- no job opportunities
- no educational opportunities
- what could make someone go to another country
- stable government
- stable economy
- established health care system
- established education system
- job opportunities
What is a Refugee?
A refugee is a person who goes from an unsafe country to a safe country in hopes of having better living conditions.
Canada is a country that accepts refugees through an application process.
Every country accepts refugees differently.
views on refugees are different compared to the
Cultural Melting Pot
When many refugees or immigrants immigrate to the United States, they are then seen as American, and identify with that nationality.
When refugees seek refuge in Canada, they are not forced to accept a new nationality completely. They see themselves as (example) Iranian-Canadian. This different way of acceptance proves that every individual is unique.
An economic immigrant is someone coming from one country to another who has something to offer to the immigrating country.
Cultural Fair Project
During the semester, I worked on an individual cultural fair assignment about my family's history and cultural background.
I researched my family's Sicilian background and how that culture and its traditions have carried through to my generation.
By completing this assignment and tasting the foods of my other classmate's cultures, I was able to learn about countries around the world.
Sicilian and Italian flags
Demographics - What are They?
Demographics are the studies of population and its patterns.
A popular way for governments and other groups to gather population information is through census.
A census is an issued survey that collects information on population, education levels, age, and income from home to home across a region. (usually
In Canada, it is mandatory to complete the census.
Failure to complete the census is a punishible crime.
Population Pyramids show different patterns in population growth.
This pyramid is generally the pyramid shape of a developing nation. It shows there are more young people than old people, which shows a country is growing.
The second pyramid shows that the population has grown at a specific point but is now dying down. This is generally the pyramid shape of an industrialized nation.
This population pyramid is kite shaped, and is generally a pyamid typical to developed nations. It shows the newest generations are getting smaller and smaller.
Population is constantly going up and down because of the following factors:
All of these changes in population are calculated by equations.
a measurement of births in an area
1. Find the number of births
2. Divide it by the total population
3. Multiply by 1000
birth rate = 13.6
Death Rate, Immigration Rate and Emigration Rate
All of these rates have the same calculation as birth rate.
# of deaths/immigrations/emigrations
= DR, IR, ER
Baby Boom & Echo Boom
The baby boom was the largest year of births recorded in history.
happened after the end of WWII
happened because all of the men came back from war, settled down and started families
lasted from 1945 to the early sixties
The Echo Boom
The echo boom is what happened later when the children of the baby boom had their own families.
Population - What is it?
Population is the number of a specific group, type, or species of animals or people in an area.
Ever wondered how to calculate the density of people in your area? It's simple!
= population density per km2
how population is distributed throughout land
can be dense, sparse or scattered
Dot maps are a type of map in which population or other things are shown by using dots.
In this example of the population density of Canada, the darker and more dots there are, the larger the population is in that area.
Another way of showing population density and distribution through maps is with a chloropleth map.
These maps are organized by region (in Canada's case, provinces and territories) with dark and light colours. The darker the colour, the more populated it is and vice versa.
Urban and Rural Land Use
in the city
lots of ecumene and infrastructure
in the country
sparse or clustered population
ecumene and infrastructure still exists but has a lesser presence
An example of urban land use
An example of rural land use
mixture between rural and urban areas
dense population but most people live in homes, not apartments/condos
life necessities are still close by
close to shopping
close proximity to the city
quieter than the city
bird's eye view
of the suburbs
Where would I rather live?
I would prefer to live in the suburbs.
they are quiet
all the necessities I need are close by
good employment opportunities
close to the city
most things in walking/biking distance
public transit system
In terms of most populated to least populated...
tops the list with the highest populations, most transit, most jobs, and most infrastructure.
is next up, with lots of population and infrastructure - just more spread out.
comes after suburban. Smack in the middle of the suburbs and the country, the fringe is still a popular place to live.
is a quieter place to live. Commonly used for farming, rural areas are perfect for people who like that little bit of extra space.
is where you might be living if your only neighbors are a family of moose. There is generally not a lot of infrastructure here, so hospitals, schools, shopping and work might be pretty far away.
Urban Land Use
In both urban and suburban areas, there are 4 main types of land use.
Where people live (homes, apartments, condos)
Land used for recreational activities (e.g parks, arenas)
Land used for manufactu-ring.
Land that is used to sell products, and where people shop.
Now that we've talked all about ecumene and infrastructure, what are they?
"Ecumene is a term used by geographers to mean inhabited land. It generally refers to land where people have made their permanent home, and to all work areas that are considered occupied and used for agricultural or any other economic purpose."
Resources like roads, sidewalks and power that help a city or town function.
Unit Five Agenda - Economic Connections
Levels of industry
Alternative and conventional energy sources
Types of resources
The story of stuff
Sustainable resource management
Types of Trees
Types of Resources
come from the earth
usually raw and unprocessed
turned into useful materials through processing
knowledgeable people trained in a specific force
examples: first aid, social worker, doctor, librarian, teacher
do not run out if managed sustainably
these resources are able to renew themselves
e.g trees, water, plants, grass, fish
limited supply and will eventually run out
includes oil, minerals, metals, stone
All of the levels of industry are placed practically.
it wouldn't make sense for a primary industry to be in the city
it would not be practical for a quaternary or tertiary industry to be placed somewhere where nobody could access
Sustainable Resource Management
In order to keep our earth clean, we all must learn to not use every ounce of a resource at once. In order for resources to replenish themselves, they need time.
Planet earth can only hold so much and so many people.
The actual number of how many people earth can hold is unknown, but the booming birth rates and low death rates throughout the world are causing severe pollution and damage to the planet.
In class we watched
- a movie based on a book by Doctor Suess about
sustainable resource management and
the Onceler, a greedy inventor intrudes the peaceful truffula forest
this makes the Lorax appear, because he speaks for the trees
the Lorax tries to kick the onceler out of the forest before he destroys all of the trees for his Thneeds
eventually the Onceler cut down the very last truffula tree and all of the animals had to leave the forest sick and hungry
The point of the movie is that humans have to be careful how they use the earth's natural resources.
The Story of Stuff
Story of Stuff
is a project that is spreading the message of
through online videos that let consumers know what the impact of the products they use have on the environment.
The video itself explains comsumption of goods in 5 steps, and shows how even buying a shirt from a "Big bix store" like Walmart can pollute the earth and bring it closer to its carrying capacity.
The Story of Stuff - Cosmetics
the original Story of Stuff
An ecological footprint is the measurement of the impact of a person's way of living.
Ecological footprint calculator:
My Ecological footprint results from the quiz show that if everyone on earth were to live like me, we ld need 3.3 planet earths.
I can reduce my ecological footprint by eating more organic and locally grown food and using less energy.
Deciduous and Coniferous Trees
There are two kinds of trees - deciduous and coniferous.
Made In Bangladesh
In class, we watched a CBC documentary called
Made in Bangladesh.
It is a documentary that shows the harsh conditions that clothing manufacturers in Bangladesh have withstand to keep their jobs and make excessively small amounts of money.
Made in Bangladesh trailer
Deciduous and Coniferous Trees
I wrote more information about deciduous and coniferous trees in unit three.
Decidious trees are hardwood.
Coniferous trees are softwood.
There are many ways to produce electricity.
There are two types of energy sources:
Conventional sources are non-renewable and are toxic to the environment.
Alternative sources are renewable and do not have a negative impact on the environment.
However, conventional sources cost less, and alternative sources are very expensive.
Conventional Energy Source Examples
created by splitting uranium atoms with nuclear fission
nuclear toxic waste is dumped into cavities in the earth
the nuclear plants give off cancer-causing radiation
created by drilling oil from the ground
burning the oil creates energy and heat
oil also powers cars
oil is constantly being spilled during transportation causing habitat loss and deaths to animals
coal is burned to provide energy through heat
Coal is non-renewable
natural gas is a fossil fuel
it is burned to provide energy and is non-renewable
Alternative Energy Sources
does not harm the environment
renewable clean energy
won't run out
doesn't make power when there is no wind
takes up a lot of space in fields
clean renewable energy
does not harm the environment
does not impact ecosystems
easy to manage
does not collect energy when there is no sunlight
very, very expensive to install
does not pollute the earth - no chemicals involved
set up on natural bodies of water
often disturbs ecosystems by blocking currents
process of creating and setting up the turbines and dams that the water passes through is costly
does not release any toxins into the earth
constant energy as long as there is a steady tide coming in from the ocean
disturbs some ecosystems in the water by using turbines
expensive to set up and maintain
bulky in the water
Canned Tomato Sauce - An Example of Industry Use
The Can Itself
Made of metal extracted from the earth by the
and processed by the
the can is sold to companies by the
Made of tomatoes grown and picked he
the tomatoes are sent to processing factories (
) and sold to grocery stores that will sell the finished product in the
GMOs - Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically modified organisms are a way to control the size and proportions of produce.
naturally grown corn (no added GMOs)
corn raised with
Geography is everywhere!
Working conditions in foreign developing countries have been known to be filthy and unfit for work. However, large-scale retailers continue to use this cheap labour to increase their profits.
Bodies of Water & The Great Lakes
The Great Lakes
Canada is bordered by 3 oceans - Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic.
Natural Increase and Population Growth Rate
Natural Increase is the birth rate subtract the death rate.
Population growth rate is the natural increase plus the immigration rate subtracted by the emigration rate.
BR-DR = NI
NI+(IR-ER) = PGR