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History of Photography

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Mic Masa

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of History of Photography

History of Photography
Leonardo Da Vinci
1409 : Da Vinci entered two clear descriptions of camera obscura in Codex Alanticus.
discovered the way the human eye works, & mimiced it to make a camera, when light is passed through a small hole (i.e; IRIS) , the image will invert
Camera Obscura vs. Pinhole Cameras
Joseph Niepce
1813 : lithography was introduced in France, then later termed heliography "sun drawing"
1826 : first "photograph" of a real-world scene on pewter plate (8 hours)
introduced to Francis Bauer while in England, who pushed him to present his papers and heliographs to the Royal Society
Niepce referred to his work as "the first results obtained spontaneously by the action of light"
His ideas were rejected because he refused to disclose the entire process
1829 : 10-year partnership with Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre.
When he passed away, Daguerre produced an invention dubbed "daguerreotype"; overshadowed Niepce's heliograph
Louis Daguerre
William Henry Fox Talbot
Calotypes (Talbotypes)
Frederick Scott Archer
Dr. Richard Maddox
Mannes & Godowsky
step 1 : prepare the iodized paper in candlelight (quality writing paper washed with silver nitrate & gently dried) when dry, then soak in potassium iodide for 2-3mins, rinsed & dried again
step 2 : gallo-nitrate of silver (silver nitrate&gallic acid) dip the iodized paper in, leave for 30secs, rinse
step 3 : insert the calotype paper inside the camera, exposed to the scene for 10secs-1min
step 4 : take the calotype paper & dip into gallo-nitrate of silver, then washed over in a "fixing agent" (hyposulphate of soda); rinse, dry
1851 : "Collodion process" is introduced ;
step 1 : glass sheet coated in Collodion
step 2 : dipped in silver nitrate
step 3 : placed in a light-proof box
step 4 : box is placed in camera
step 5 : "dark slide" is removed for a few seconds, therefore taking the photograph, then replaced
step 6 : taken into the dark room, "fixed" in hypo & dried (may be coated in varnish)
ferrotype/tintype : image produced on tin as opposed to glass or paper

1871 : "Dry Plate Photography"
ether fumes from Collodion process
effected his health, so he replaced it with a
Gelatin emulsion
Edwin Land
1947 : the "Polaroid Land" camera, instant photography with film
1963 : colour-photo version of film was introduced
1970 : Polaroid pioneered coloured instant film
Kodak DCS 100
MAY 1991 : Kodak introduces the "Kodak DCS 100", 1.3 megapixels
light travels through lens, mirror swings up, sends light to the sensor, therefore creating the photograph
REFERENCES
Leonardo DaVinci
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codex_Atlanticus
Joseph Niepce
http://www.annedarlingphotography.com/joseph-nicephore-niepce.html
http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/firstphotograph/niepce/
Pinhole Cameras vs. Camera Obscura
http://www.pinhole.cz/en/pinholecameras/whatis.html
Louis Daguerre
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dagu/hd_dagu.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturepicturegalleries/8898962/Louis-Daguerre-and-the-pioneers-of-photography.html
http://www.photohistory-sussex.co.uk/dagprocess.htm
William Henry Fox Talbot
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tlbt/hd_tlbt.htm
Calotypes/Talbotypes
http://www.gla.ac.uk/services/specialcollections/collectionsa-z/hilladamson/calotypeprocess/
Frederick Scott Archer
http://history1800s.about.com/od/1800sglossary/g/Wet-Plate-Method-Of-Photography.htm
http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/1_early/1_early_photography_-_processes_-_tintype.htm
Dr. Richard Maddox
http://www.darkestroom.com/history/biographies/richard-leach-maddox/
http://www.alternativephotography.com/wp/processes/gelatin-silver/silver-gelatin-dry-plate-process
George Eastman
http://inventors.about.com/od/estartinventors/ss/George_Eastman_2.htm#step-heading
http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Milestones_-_chronology/1878-1929.htm
Mannes & Godowsky
http://www.bu.edu/prc/GODOWSKY/godowsk2.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_Godowsky,_Jr.#Development_of_Color_Process
Edwin Land
http://www.biography.com/people/edwin-land-9372429#polaroid
Kodak DSC 100
h
ttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodak_DCS_100
*latin lesson*
camera = dark
obscura = room
Camera Obscura : room where the image is projected onto the wall through a small opening on the adjacent wall.
1st use - solar eclipse & examine laws of projection**

Pinhole Camera : camera without a lens, single aperature, light-proof box, pinhole on one side
(1452–1519 AD)
(1765-1833)
1826 : "View of the window from Le Gras"
1820's : yearned to capture the image he saw through his camera obscura
1829 : met Niepce, partnership
1833 : Niepce passes, Daguerre used silver-plated copper sheets > pewter plates ; silver iodide, & then began to use mercury vapour so photos could be produced in 20-30mins & create portaits; common salt to "fix" the photos
1837 : takes Sir John Herschel's advice and began to use hyposulphate of soda (now thiosulphate of soda ) ato "fix" the photos
1839 : meeting in Paris, introduced his invention "daguerreotype" to the world & publicly explained the process

(1787 - 1851)
1835 : plaster casts on a window ledge
produced on a silver-plated sheet of copper
1841 ; daguerreotype portrait studio
(1800 - 1877)
1833 : frustrated, Talbot believed the camera lucida & obscura did no justice to the beauty of the scenery
1834 : returns to Lacock Abbey, presents "the art of photogenic drawing" (photograms)
1835 : sets "mouse traps" around Lacock Abbey
1841 : presented the "calotype process"
1844 : published "The Pencil Of Nature"
1835 : negative of the
oriel window in Lacock Abbey
*greek lesson*
"calo"type derrives from
"kalos" = beautiful
1844 : lace
Bertoloni Album
1863 : calotype portrait
1813 - 1857
1865 : 3/4 shot tintype of a
soldier from the Civil War
1816 - 1902
1854 - 1932
1888 : Eastman Kodak Company slogan :"you press the button, we do the rest"
(snapshot photography & simplified entire process)
1888 : first Kodak camera
1940 : Mannes (1899-1964) & Godowsky (1900-1983)
George Eastmann
1935 : introduced Kodachrome, special colour film, the 16mm movie film
1936 : Kodachrome 32mm still & 8mm movie film
1900 : the Brownie
1909 - 1991
1991 : Kodak DCS 100
1963 : Polaroid camera
1886 : Dry Plate for amateurs
1. Camera lens
2. Reflex mirror
3. Focal-plane shutter
4. Image sensor
5. Matte focusing screen
6. Condenser lens
7. Pentaprism/pentamirror
8. Viewfinder eyepiece
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