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Challenges to Canadian Unity

A timeline of events that had either a positive or negative impact on the unity of Canada.
by

Jessica Porter

on 14 November 2012

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Transcript of Challenges to Canadian Unity

Just a simple timeline to follow the aftermath of the second world war that took place some time ago. Foot steps of Challenges to Canadian Unity Maurice Duplessis led the nationalist French-Canadian political party called Union Nationale, this began in the mid 1940's when WWII ended.
He promoted the idea that Quebec was more of a nation as opposed to just another Canadian province.
His time as the Quebec Premier is known as "Grand Noirceur", translates to The Great Darkness. Others know his reign as the last champion.
During that point in time when he was Premier he used the church as a prop to gain power as he did with patronage to build new hospitals, bridges, and schools.
Politically Quebec was not tidy. Votes would not be recorded properly, people would get beat up and ballots were swapped.
His political came from a series of gatherings by legislators of two groups, the Action libérale nationale and the Conservative Party of Quebec. Thus bringing a new political party, Union Nationale.
He was not set on bringing the two nations together, if anything he tried to stop the two countries from uniting. Maurice Duplessis
and
the Great Darkness
1944-1959 Lester Pearson, Canada's Prime Minister from 1963-1968 formed the commission for the biculturalism and bilinguilism laws in Canada. Bilingualism and Biculturalism Commission formed (1963) Canada's new Flag Unveiled (1965) The First Nations organization (today known as the AFN, Assembly of First Nations) was formed in 1968 among many other organizations such as, the Human Rights Watch, the Canadian Civil Liberties Association and Amnesty International. National Indian Brotherhood formed (1968) Official Languages Act Passed in Canada (1969) Residential School system abandoned (1969) Bauch, Hubert. "Bill 101 paved way for peace." Vigile. Vigile, 25 2007. Web. Web. 8 Nov. 2012. <http://www.vigile.net/Bill-101-paved-way-for-peace>.
Bélanger, Claude. "The Quiet Revolution." Quebec History, Marianopolis College. Marianopolis College, 23 2000. Web. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/events/quiet.htm>.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 209. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 213-214. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 240-241. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 253. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 258-259. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Cranny, Michael, and Garvin Moles. Counterpoints, Exploring Canadian Issues, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2010. 262-265. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Hudon, R. "Bill 101." <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/bill-101>.
Kesler, Linc, Karrmen Crey, and Erin Hanson. "The White Paper 1969." Vancouver: 2009. <http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/government-policy/the-white-paper-1969.html>.
Marsh, James. "Mackenzie Valley Pipeline." Berger Commission 1977. 2004. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/mackenzie-valley-pipeline>.
Wikipedia contributors. "Assembly of First Nations." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Oct. 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Delgamuukw v. British Columbia." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 18 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Front de libération du Québec." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Flag of Canada." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Jean Lesage." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Lester B. Pearson." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 29 Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Maurice Duplessis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Sep. 2012. Web. 17 Sep. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "National Energy Program." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 25 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "October Crisis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 7 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Official Languages Act (Canada)." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Oka Crisis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Patriation." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Potlatch ban." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 27 Sep. 2012. Web. 28 Sep. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Quebec referendum, 1980." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 Aug. 2012. Web. 9 Nov. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Quiet Revolution." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 9 Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012.
Wikipedia contributors. "War Measures Act." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 16 Oct. 2012. Web. 8 Nov. 2012.
. "Aboriginal people and the franchise." Canadian Museum of Civilization, Musée canadian des civilisations. N.p., 30 Jul 2010. Web. 3 Oct 2012. <http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/elections/el_038_e.shtml>.
"The Quiet Revolution." Canada in a North American Context. N.p., n. d. Web. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://option.canada.pagesperso-orange.fr/QuietRevolution.htm>. Works Cited Ban of the Potlatch revoked
1951 In 1951 many changes were made to the Indian Act because women were granted the rights to vote in band elections.
The ban of potlatches and wearing traditional regalia were finally lifted.
Even though these bans were abolished, the government still had the power to keep the Indian act and to define Indian status and band membership.
The ban of potlatch definitely had a negative effect on the unity of Canada. For one, they managed to affront the native people of Canada, in addition, they took away their tradition. Until 1960 there was never a time where every eligible person (by age) could vote due to their race.
Voting rights for Native Canadians were changed and made so that all Native Canadian people had the right to vote, without the force to give up their right to their Indian status.
There was no evidence to support the Natives wanted this as they looked upon this as a negative change as they did not want to be assimilated.
By voting, they would be inevitably be giving up their culture.
What the native people were most worried about was if they were to gain this franchise they may lose the reserve lands.
Diefenbaker allowed the native Canadians the right to vote for beneficial purposes. To see to it that nothing gets taken away from them.
Diefenbaker had a great influence towards Canadian unity and his position as Canada's Prime Minister had conveyed Canada's unity to a great beginning. Aboriginals gain voting rights
1960 Images AAO East/Est, . canadian-flag-640.jpg. N.d. blogspot, googleWeb. 30 Oct 2012. <http://aaoeast.blogspot.hk/2011/02/national-flag-of-canada-day.html>.
AFN Logo. N.d. WikipediaWeb. 1 Nov 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_of_First_Nations
Cameron, Duncan. Pierre Trudeau at Liberal leadership convention, April 6, 1968. N.d. Canadian Museum of CivilizationWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/hist/biography/biographi271e.shtml>.
Canadahistory.com. N.d. Canada HistoryWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/pcsinpower/charlottetown_accords.htm>.
cartoon about nisga'a treaty. N.d. KermodeWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.kermode.net/gitanyowchiefs/treaty_main.htm>.
Denendeh Chiefs at an Indian Brotherhood of the Northwest Territories national assembly, circa 1970. N.d. Dene NationWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.denenation.com/history.html>.
Editorial cartoons of the day as published in "Inuit Today" Vol 6 / No 8. N.d. Inuit Tapiriit KanatamiWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <https://www.itk.ca/historical-event/nunavik-protests-quebec-bill-101>.
Figure 1-1 Overall project map. N.d. National Energy BoardWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.neb-one.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rthnb/pplctnsbfrthnb/mcknzgsprjct/rfd/rfdv2ch1-eng.html>.
Harden, Zachary. Proposed Canadian flag in 1946; red ensign with a golden maple leaf badge.. 2008. WikipediaWeb. 30 Oct 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1946_Canadian_flag_proposal.svg
Index of /vmc/multimedia/sec6/1 SCC hears Delgamuukw case. N.d. Upper SkeenaWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=delgamuukw case&num=10&um=1&hl=en&client=safari&tbo=d&rls=en&biw=1280&bih=625&tbm=isch&tbnid=rGsCUKSTJ_wsVM:&imgrefurl=http://www.upperskeena.ca/vmc/multimedia/sec6/1%20SCC%20hears%20Delgamuukw%20case/&docid=xBKWFKokqw5SLM&imgurl=http://www.upperskeena.ca/vmc/multimedia/sec6/1%2520SCC%2520hears%2520Delgamuukw%2520case/11%2520hearing.jpg&w=1785&h=950&ei=dEOiUMTFA4yviQfZnoCoAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=477&vpy=177&dur=652&hovh=164&hovw=308&tx=139&ty=107&sig=114236937574521753773&sqi=2&page=1&tbnh=160&tbnw=300&start=0&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:77>.
Indian Chiefs of Alberta, . Citizens Plus. N.d. Black Sheep Books, Saltspring Island. Web. 12 Nov 2012. <http://www.sabinesbooks.com/store/products.php?cat=35&pg=2>.
Indian Scholars attending the Alert Bay Mission School. N.d. Manataka® American Indian CouncilWeb. 1 Nov 2012. <http://www.manataka.org/page1315.html>.
Jennifer, McNeil Bertrand. The Beginnings of Official Multiculturalism in Canada. 2010. Suite 101Web. 30 Oct 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/the-beginnings-of-official-multiculturalism-in-canada-a310364>.
Khan, Iram. map of Nunavut. N.d. Canadian ContentWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.canadiancontent.ca/issues/0399nunavut.html>.
Maurice Duplessis, 1938.png. 1938. Photograph. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Duplessis, Quebec. Web. 28 Sep 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maurice_Duplessis,_1938.png>.
National Film Board of Canada, . Canada – Head of Government | Northwest Territories – First Nations. 1961. Photograph. University of Saskatchewan, Inuvik, Northwest Territories. Web. 3 Oct 2012. <http://www.usask.ca/diefenbaker/galleries/virtual_exhibit/enfranchisements_of_aboriginals/images/full_images/pic-1-6.jpg>.
Québec History 33 - The Meech Lake Failure. N.d. GlogsterWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.glogster.com/susan2897/the-meech-lake-accord/g-6mlmqjilppsnnh31s9jrba0?old_view=True>.
Quebec separatism. N.d. The Canuck FirebrandWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://canuckfirebrand.wordpress.com/tag/quebec-separatism/>.
Quiet Revolution - Quebec FLQ. N.d. Grade 11 ResourcesWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://dt-ss.tripod.com/eleven-resources.html>.
The event that made reform possible was the death of Maurice Duplessis in 1959 and the establishment of a Liberal government under Jean Lesage in 1960.. N.d. Canada in a North American ContextWeb. 22 Oct 2012. <http://option.canada.pagesperso-orange.fr/QuietRevolution.htm>.
The National Energy Program. N.d. Union GasWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.uniongas.com/centennial/dawn/1980timeline.asp>.
THE OKA CRISIS. N.d. Canadian Military Collectors ForumWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.cdnmilitarycollectors.com/t551-the-oka-crisis-1990>.
The 1980 Quebec Referendum. N.d. Screen Shot. CBC playerWeb. 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.cbc.ca/player/Digital Archives/Politics/The Constitution/ID/1818451861/?sort=MostPopular>.
Voice, Pictures. Potlatch. 2003. Photograph. http://www.haidadesigns.com/culture.htm
1 canada.quebec flag. N.d. The Non-conformer WordpressWeb. 30 Oct 2012. <http://thenonconformer.wordpress.com/2008/08/09/my-more-popular-canadian-graphic-inserts/1-canada-quebec-flag-5/>. Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution (maitre chez nous) (1960) Jean Lesage, the establishment of a liberal government and Maurice Duplessis' death was Canada's gateway to a reformed country.
The Quiet Revolution's name was given for the period Jean Lesage took reign from 1960-1966. This time is called The Quiet Revolution for the reason that
Jean Lesage's liberal campaign won the vote of Quebec with it's slogan, C’est le temps que ça change and in english, this means "It's time things changed".
His big win as Quebec's 19th Premier put an end to a long duration of Union Nationale.
The Quiet Revolution helped the provincial government take hold of healthcare and education, both of which had been controlled by the Roman Catholic Church.
Because the provincial government now had control over the healthcare and education, this allowed for ministries of Education and Health, broadened the public service and created vast investments for the public education system and provincial infrastructure.
Lesage's reign changed the traditional command over Quebec and replaced for a more substantial responsibility for the government of Quebec, allowing a more contemporary modernized government.
Jean Lesage and the Quiet revolution had a monumental turn on Quebec's society. This turn of events definitely had a great impact on Canada's unity. May 9th 1945 there were 2,695 designs of the flag suggested to the committee
Committee proposed that the national flag should be the Canadian red ensign followed by the golden maple leaf in autumn golden colours with a white bordered background.
The Legislative of Quebec complained stating the flag should not include any foreign symbols (Union Jack) as this was deemed unequal to the French-Canadians.

This is the 1946 national canadian flag that troops would run into battle with.

In the 1960s there was lots of dispute for an official canadian flag, which resulted into a big topic of debate.
This was known as " The great flag debate of 1964".
Lester B. Pearson of the Minority Liberal Government secured power.
He then decided to have an official Canadian flag by carrying out an parliamentary debate.
Egyptian Government confronted Pearson stating that the Canadian flag was composed of the same symbol (Royal Union Jack) design used for the flag of the United Kingdom.
Pearson intended to ensure that the Canadian flag would be distinctive and unmistakably Canadian.
Pearsons opposer John Diefenbaker also the former prime minsiter made the flage change a personal campaign.
Pearson was aware that Quebec disliked the idea of the red ensign of the union jack but was in danger of loosing power over the topic due to the English-Canada strongly liking the red ensign.
On may 27 1964 Pearson submitted his favourite flag design ("Sea to sea" Canada's motto) to the parliament, later the design became known as the Pearson Pennant.
Diefenbaker requested a referendum on the matter, Pearson alternatively set up a 15 member multi-party parliamentary committee to select a design.
October 29th 1964 the committee approved of the design created by George F,G Stanley, which later passed voting in the house of commons on December 15th 1964.
Elizabeth II (Queen of Canada) announced the flag on January 28th 1965
The making of the Canadian Flag definitely brought Canadians further united. I believe so since the flag was not biased, however it is mutual. This law was made to protect and ensure that the French-Canadians of Canada would not be assimilated into speaking English and changing their traditional values into English-Canadian values. Another purpose this law brought in was to set in stone that this nation is composed of two founding races in which are equal partners. There are 5 reccomendations that make the Bi and Bi commission, the main one would be that Canada overall has two languages. We see this today everywhere, while at the airport, on a train or even on your cereal box there's two languages offered. (Just see the other side of the box). Lester B. Pearson was a very justifiable man. He had good intentions when enforcing this commission. This commission is a significant moment in Canadian history that helped initiate Canadian Unity. Official languages act was one of the foundations of government Pierre Trudeau reign.
The law implemented was tailored towards some of the targets outlined by the federally commissioned royal commission on Bilingualism & Biculturalism.
This was introduced in 1963 during when reports of unequal treatment by the federal administration on Canada's English and french speaking communities.
One of the most important elements of the 1969 act was to make sure the federal services government would supply both official languages to wherever needed.
Having two official languages in Canada had a positive impact on Canada's unity because this doesn't discriminate against the French-Canadians or the English-Canadians. The formation of the First Nations organization is the aftermath of a series of failed attempts. The brotherhood formerly included the non-status Indians, treaty Indians and Métis Indians. This organization began in 1961 and was called the National Indian Council. Government of Canada White Paper Proposes (1969) The three groups had collapsed in 1967 unsuccessful in cooperating as one group. Because of their differences, the Métis and the non-status Indians formed a group called the Native Council of Canada, as the treaty/status Indians began the National Indian Brotherhood. Intended to treat all Canadians equally by terminating Indian creating an individual legal status.
Ensure Aboriginal people were recognized as residents and shared the same rights & opportunities as other Canadian residents.
Terminate the indian act.
Reserve lands were turned into private lands, this enabled the band or its members to sell.
Federal government duties were passed to Indian affairs to the district allowing the services to be incorporated for other Canadian residents.
Sufficient funding supplied for economic expansion.
Assign a commissioner to deal with issues regarding land claims to eventually eliminate existing treaties.
This was in my opinion, was not helpful towards Canadian unity because this was just another one of their attempts to assimilate the First Nations. The National Indian Brotherhood is the political body of the First Nations people and act as lobbyist's for changes to both federal and provincial policies. The stability of the First Nation's brotherhood had an impact on Canada's Unity, although British-Canadians are in their debt for many reasons such as claiming their land, residential schools, pressuring them into dropping Indian status etc. Residential School systems were abandoned in 1969.
The natives were allowed to take the reins on their childrens education.
This opened doors to "Band Schools" where the Indian children would learn about First Nations history, their own languages and their own traditions.
If they wished to continue their education in secondary schools, they would have to travel far as the secondary schools were not close to the reserve lands.
The government supported natives that wanted to continue their education in secondary schools by providing a home school program for students to stay in places such as Vancouver or New Westminster.
Abandoning the residential school system is a great step towards Canadian Unity. However there are still victims to the physical and or sexual abuse that are still healing. The making of this organization had a positive impact on Canadian Unity for the reason that the native people of Canada was enabled to have a say politically. Aboriginal Red Paper or Citizen Plus – rebuttal to White Paper (1969) After Chretien's proposal of the White paper, the National Indian Brotherhood made it's first major campaign, the "Red Paper".
A large group of First Nations were unhappy with the white paper's proposal.
The Red Paper/Citizens Plus entailed a rejection along with demands for self-government for the Aboriginal peoples and control over their own concerns.
Having the National Indian Brotherhood respond to the White paper in such a way, Trudeau and Chretien decided to scrap the White Paper.
I feel that the National Indian Brotherhood pulling themselves together to counter Chretien's proposal was a defining moment for the First Nations. I do feel that it brought Canada to be even more so united because the First Nations also began to voice what they want. FLQ crisis (Laporte and Cross kidnapped, Trudeau invokes War Measure’s Act) (1970) FLQ (Front de libération du Québec) was a terrorist group that lasted from 1963 through to 1970 where the October Crisis occurred.
James Cross, a British politician was kidnapped by this group for 60 days. Pierre LaPorte too was kidnapped however the investigation reports say he was found killed.
From this horrible incident, the War Measures Act was implemented.
The War Measures Act had made easier for the police to arrest & detain in order to find and stop the FLQ members from more attacks.
The War Measures Act was originally used in battle during WWI and WWII. However, needed to be reinforced for this situation.
Although Trudeau was passionate to get rid of this group creating violence on the streets, hardly any of the FLQ affiliates were imprisoned for their acts.
Getting rid of the violence that this group inflicted on the public and towards the politicians helped simmer down the seperatists and Trudeau's role in this was neccessary as his goal was to create a modernized peaceful country. Berger Commission (1977) The Berger Commission is also known as the Mackenzie Pipeline inquiry.
The commission was written by Berger which is made up of the aftermath of what would happen is there were a pipeline built to carry oil.
This pipeline would go from Alaska through the northern Yukon and the Mackenzie Valley, all the way to Alberta.
This began an outrage with the Aboriginal people that saw this pipeline as a environmental threat, convinced that this project would put regional land claims into jeopardy.
The commission entailed that a moratorium should be placed on construction through to 1987 which gives time towards land claim settlements.
Although that was the plan, the pipeline was never built seeing as there was so much conflict at the time and the economy was unstable.
Confederation with the Aboriginal people was probably difficult when making the decision, nonetheless they didn't follow through. Connecting a pipeline through to Alaska would have made easier alliance with the Americans however. Bill 101 passed in Quebec (1977) Bill 101 is the concluded debate over speaking french in Quebec which previously brought in Bill 63 (from 1969) and Bill 22 (1974).
The bill, put into effect, made French the commonly spoken language in Quebec.
Due to this bill work places required people that must be able to speak French.
Education in French became mandatory for immigrants, also for Canadians from other provinces.
This bill put many English speaking Canadians out of work. In theory, they were pushed out of Quebec.
There are many arguments over this, I understand that the French do not want to be assimilated however they put people out of work because of a spoken language. However, giving the people of Quebec what they want opens a door for unity. 1980 Quebec Referendum – Sovereignty-Association proposed by Rene Levesque and the Parti Quebecois The 1980 Quebec Referendum, proposed by the Premier of Quebec, René Lévesque, was Quebec's first opportunity to separate from the rest of Canada, determined by the public's vote.
This put into the hands of the public to decide Quebec's fate, whether it stayed a province or gain sovereignty.
Fortunately for Canada today, the segregationists suffered defeat 59.56% to 40.44%.
Polls prior to the referendum suggested that the separatists were in favor of winning the vote.
If the separatists had won the vote, they would inherit exclusive power to self govern.
If the outcome was different, I wouldn't be able to say the event brought Canada to unity. The separatists have quieted down now and I do believe Canada's Unity depended on this event and the 1995 Referendum. Assembly of First Nations formed (1980) The National Indian Brotherhood were successful however there were a couple problems that rose people to question.
For instance, it's structure had been made with the intention of representing a large number of non-governmental organizations, not able to claim representative of all the bands and nations across Canada.
Up until the late 1970's the criticism wasn't as distinguished.
Soon after, the National Indian Brotherhood rearranged themselves into a truly representative body, and changed the organizations name to Assembly of First Nations by 1982.
The Assembly had finally been structured, liable to all First Nations in Canada.
The improvement of the organization helped the group be taken seriously and it also brings Canada to better unity because the First Nations can voice their opinions. National Energy Program introduced (1980) The National Energy Program was an energy policy of the Government of Canada that was designed to enable all Canadians to get involved in the energy industry, oil and gas in particular, to share the benefits of it's expansion.
The NEP had an aim to promote oil self-sufficiency for Canada and to maintain the oil supply, especially the base in eastern Canada, to promote the Canadian ownership of the energy industry and to promote lower prices.
The program was created under the Liberal government of Trudeau by Minister of Energy Marc Lalonde in 1980. It was administered by the Department of Energy, Mines & Resources.
The program was introduced in the result of the energy crisis of the 1970's and it ended soon after Trudeau retired.
This program was unfavored as all it did was just lose money as opposed to the main reason for this plan. The idea was good for Canadian Unity however. Trudeau patriates the Constitution - Notwithstanding Clause, Kitchen Compromise (1982) The BNA had always been Canada's constitution up until Trudeau decided it was time to change things.
In changing the constitution, Trudeau had to look into a couple of components. He took into consideration the number of provinces in agreement necessary to make changes to the constitution and whether or not Quebec should be given veto power or not.
Getting both the federal and provincial governments to agree upon the changes Trudeau wanted to make to the constitution was not easy.
Trudeau had the Premiers in agreement to his proposal so long as there would be an escape clause. Which meant that there had to be 7 out of 10 provinces that represent 50% of Canada's population to make changes to the constitution. In theory this meant they would not need Quebec's consent as long as they had Ontario.
As expected Levesque, Quebec's Premier did not agree with Trudeau's compromise. Regardless Trudeau went through with the plans and signed the new Constitution into law alongside Queen Elizabeth II.
All flags in Quebec were raised at half-mast as Levesque and Quebecer's were furious.
Trudeau could have pursuaded the Premier of Quebec to agree and if not, at least compensate. I would not say this helped Canadian unity. Meech Lake Accord dies (1990) The Meech Lake Accord was presented by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in Meech Lake as an apology to Quebec.
The Accord consisted of giving Quebec veto power.
There was a lot of critique over the accord and in particular former PM, Trudeau had a lot to say. Trudeau thinks the separation of Quebec, letting them become their "distinct" society would make for "2 solitudes" in Canada. In the long run, their plan to maintain their language and traditions would backfire. The francophones of Quebec would become isolated, making them "less" rather than more".
Mulroney waited on the last 2 provinces to give their support, Manitoba and Newfoundland. However, they would not give their support.
Because of the lack of conclusion, the Meech Lake Accord died in June 1990. The failure of the Meech Lake Accord is taken as a rejection of Quebec, even a humiliation.
Support in Quebec's separation increased 64%.
Lucien Bouchard, an exceptional member of Mulroney's cabinet, resigned in fury over the matter. He began to protest and formed his own political party, the Bloc Quebecois.
The creation of the Accord did bringing the two nations together no good. However, the abandonment of the Accord sparked a fire that led to the beginning of the Bloc Quebecois, a separatist party. The Oka Confrontation (1990) The Oka crisis/conflict/confrontation was over a land dispute between the Mohawks and the people in the town of Oka.
The Mohawk clan had previously tried to attain a land claim to protect their sacred burial grounds in 1986 although they were declined.
Later in 1990, the town of Oka were looking into building a golf course and to build more homes. By doing so, they would have to build on top of the Mohawks burial grounds.
In protest, the Mohawk people decided to block the land from further construction. The mayor of Oka called in the police to deal with the "criminal act".
Police arrived, approaching the Mohawk lines, there was gunfire for roughly 15 minutes, an officer was shot and killed.
The people in towns nearby yelled "sauvages" (savages in english) at the Mohawk People while burning figurines of them.
The fact that the two could not communicate did not help the situation, to make worse Premier Bourassa became involved and brought in the army in support.
He was allowed to do so after the October Crisis, where Trudeau made the War Measures act an exception if under these circumstances.
The way the situation was handled did not help Canada towards confederation however it just strained the relationship between the First Nations and the French-Canadians. The Charlottetown Accord dies (1990): PM Mulroney could not let go of the Constitution debate end. He assigned the "Citizens Forum" a committee that would travel across the country for Canadian's opinions on the Constitution.
After a while, Proposed by Mulroney & provincial premiers was a parcel of constitutional ammendments.
This in some measure addressed Quebec's concerns, a little like the Meech Lake Accord. However, this also favored the principles of Aboriginals self-government.
Also, the Senate would be reformed to an elected body to representing equally, all parts of the country.
The Accord was put to a referendum October 1992.
Mulroney had warned the country of the danger's that could happen if the proposal were to be rejected.
Regardless of what Mulroney had said 54.3% of Canada rejected the proposal.
The rejection of this proposal had a positive effect on Canadian confederation for the reason that the rejection slowed down the separatism of Quebec. 1995 Quebec Referendum & the Bloc Quebecois This is the last Quebec Referendum in Canadian history.
Because of the conclusion to previous constitution debates and the humiliation Quebec faced, an angered Quebec may have elected the seperatist 'Parti Quebecois' in 1994 with reason.
The following year the party had been elected, Premier of Quebec, Jacques Parizeau called a provincial referendum on complete sovereignty.
30th October 1995, the ballots were counted. 49.4% had voted yes for separation.
Although The close vote shocked people, the separatists lessened in following years.
I believe both referendums would not progress towards Canadian unity for obvious reasons, "2 solitudes" - Pierre Trudeau. Ruling on the Delgamuluukw Case (1998) The case was declined.
Aboriginals in B.C. were rejected self-government
This had a negative effect on Canadian unity. Creation of Nunavut (1999) The significance of the creation of this new territory is that it had given the Inuit of northern Canada political leeway over 2 million square kilometers.
Because of this movement, Aboriginal land claims & self government may skyrocket in the 21st century.
This has helped Canada's unity because the government has given the Inuit's land Nisga's Treaty recieves Royal Assent (2000) The first occupants of the Nass Valley in the North West fought for their land rights for many years.
The government finally made a deal with the Nisga'a.
They've offered to give back a small amount of their land. To compensate, partial profits from the salmon fisheries & hydro development are given to them.
They also recieve the right to build their own government and police.
However they must give up their tax-exempt status.
This is a great agreement, for all that the tribe has been through. On top of this, there's a whole new look on the Aboriginal people of Canada from last century. A happy ending to last century, and a great beginning to a new century. Media Trudeau's White Paper. 2008. Film. 12 Nov 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jIaIPDJa_SE>.
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